PHỤ LỤC: thuật ngữ thưỜng dùng trong tổ chức sự kiện accepted Practices Exchange (apex)



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PHỤ LỤC: THUẬT NGỮ THƯỜNG DÙNG TRONG TỔ CHỨC SỰ KIỆN

Accepted Practices Exchange (APEX) - an initiative of the Convention Industry Council. The mission of APEX is "To spearhead an industry-wide initiative that brings together all stakeholders in the development and implementation of industry-wide accepted practices which create and enhance efficiencies throughout the meetings, conventions and exhibitions industry."



Accessibility - availability or approachability for all persons, regardless of a person’s physical or mental limitations

 Accommodation - guest bedrooms occupied by meeting attendees

 accompanying person - any individual who comes with a participant, not necessarily involved with the meeting sessions; guest or spouse of an attendee

 accrual accounting - income is entered when it is earned and expenses are entered when they are incurred, not necessarily when they are paid

 acetate- transparent material on which information for an overhead projector is written; available in sheets or rolls

 advance registration incentives - complimentary or discounted goods, services, or fees that encourage attendees to register for an event before it actually takes place, done through mail, phone, internet, or fax

 agenda -program of things to be done; specifically, a list of things to be dealt with at a meeting

 ambient lighting - level of illumination from natural lighting sources already existing in an environment

 amenities- complimentary items; often in the guest’s bedroom

 amplifier (amp) - device enabling sound to be intensified

 ancillary - those events that are in conjunction with the conference/event, such as guest programs

 annual general meeting (AGM) - the yearly General Meeting of an association, corporation

 attendee - individual registered for a conference; people who actually come are verified attendees  

attendee profile - a description of the typical delegate which includes such details as age, sex, point of origin, companions (demographics)

 attendee trend - a following of attendee profiles from conference to conference; to determine general tendencies over a period of time

 attrition clause - a specific provision in a contract that has been agreed upon in writing by the hotel and the meeting sponsor; provides for payment of damages by the sponsor to the hotel when the sponsor fails to fulfill its specified percentage of contracted room nights or its specified percentage of food and beverage or both

 audio visual aids - audio and visual support for meetings, usually taking the form of film, slides, overhead projection, flip charts, sound and video equipment

 banquet event order (BEO) - detailed instructions for a particular event prepared by the facility; also known as a résumé sheet or function sheet; includes detailed instructions related to room setups, food and beverage

 barrier free - absence of obstacles preventing persons with special needs from moving freely to all public areas within a building

 blue lines- a copy of filmed camera ready copy, one of the last stages before printing

 boom - Adjustable support for positioning microphones or lighting fixtures.

 booth area - amount of floor space occupied by exhibitor; same as exhibition area, stand area

 brainstorming - group sessions in which all participants contribute creative ideas which are not initially judged for merit

 breakeven point - the point at which revenues match expenditures (e.g., no financial loss is incurred)

 breakout session - small group sessions, panels, workshops or presentations, offered concurrently within the meeting, formed to focus on specific subjects; the meeting is apart from the general session, but within the meeting format, formed to focus on specific subjects; these sessions can be arranged by basic, intermediate or advanced; or divided by interest areas or industry segment

 bulk mailings - large quantity of mail sent at one time at a special rate

 budgetary philosophy - financial expectation of the meeting; generate a profit, break-even, or run at a deficit

 budget reconciliation - a comparison of the budgeted figures for the meeting vs the actual figures achieved

 call for abstracts - prospectus sent to potential sources of meeting presenter, exhibitors, speakers or panelist

 call for papers - an invitation to submit topic ideas for the conference program; document containing detailed instructions for submission of papers for assessment and selection by a review committee; often referred to as "abstract forms"

 cancellation clause - 1) provision in a contract which outlines penalties for both parties if cancellation occurs for failure to comply with terms of the agreement; 2) (entertainment) provision with artist’s contract that allows artist to cancel within a specified period of time prior to artist’s play date

 carousel tray - circular holder used for projecting 35mm slides; same as round slide tray

 cash accounting - a system in which revenue and expenses are counted as they are actually received

 cash bar - private room bar set up where guests pay for drinks individually

 Certified Meeting Manager (CMM) - Certification program offered by Meeting Professionals International; global certification in meeting management that focuses on strategic thinking and actions for senior level meeting professionals

 Certified Meeting Professional (CMP) - accredited designation offered by the Convention Industry Council; this designation certifies competency in 27 areas of meeting management through application and examination

 chart of accounts - detailed list of the individual line items that make up the revenue and expense categories in a budget; a numbering system used to identify every line item in a budget, so income and expenses are posted to the correct accounts

 client - a customer; may refer to the person/organization hiring the meeting professional

 clinic - workshop-type educational experience where attendees learn by doing

 communications center - an area in the meeting venue for telephone, fax, Internet, or teleconferencing facilities

 complimentary (comp) - service, space or item given at no charge

 complete meeting package (CMP) - an all-inclusive plan offered by conference centers; includes lodging, all meals and support services

 concurrent session - multiple sessions scheduled at the same time; programs on different themes or subjects offered simultaneously

 conference - 1) participatory meeting designed for discussion, fact-finding, problem solving and consultation; 2) an event used by any organization to meet and exchange views, convey a message, open a debate or give publicity to some area of opinion on a specific issue; no tradition, continuity or periodicity is required to convene a conference; although not generally limited in time, conferences are usually of short duration with specific objectives; conferences are generally on a smaller scale than congresses

 conference résumé - a detailed summary of overall meeting requirements prepared by the organizers for the facilities and/or suppliers. Also called event résumé, manual of operations

 confrontation - efforts of a dissident group to obstruct the conduct of an event

 congress - 1) the regular coming together of large groups of individuals, generally to discuss a particular subject; a congress will often last several days and have several simultaneous sessions; the length of time between congresses is usually established in advance of the implementation stage, and can be either pluri-annual or annual; most international or world congresses are of the former type while national congresses are more frequently held annually; 2) meeting of an association of delegates or representatives from constituent organizations; 3) European term for convention

 contingency plan - an alternative plan that may replace the original plan when circumstances change

 continuing education units (CEUs) - requirement of many professional groups by which members must certify participation in formal educational programs designed to maintain their level of ability beyond their original certification date

 contractor - an individual or organization providing services to an exposition and/or its exhibitors; typically refers to either a general service contractor or specialty contractor

 contribution margin - amount of the registration fee that is left over once the individual’s variable costs have been covered (e.g. how much each delegate contributes towards the fixed costs of the meeting)

 convention - large, national meetings of business circles, whether for discussion or commercial exhibitions or both; may also refer to a general and formal meeting of a legislative body, social, or economic group in order to provide information on a particular situation and in order to deliberate and, consequently, establish consent on policies among the participants

convention and visitors bureau (CVB) - not-for-profit destination marketing organization that represents and promotes a city or geographic area in the solicitation and servicing of all types of travelers to that city or area, whether they visit for business, pleasure or both; CVBs provide destination promotion and sometimes offers personnel, housing control, and other services for meetings and conventions.

 corner booth - an exhibit space with exposure on at least two aisles; some shows charge premiums for these corners.

 Cover - the number of people served at a food and beverage event, the table setting for one person, or in reference to the number of waiters per cover or person

 crescent-round setup - uses 60-, 66- or 72-inch (152-, 168- and 183-centimeter) diameter rounds with seating on two thirds to three quarters of the table and no seating with its back to the speaker; used for banquet-to-meeting or meeting-to-banquet quick set; also called buzz style setup or half-moon seating

 crisis management - immediate action to control or direct any situations which become problematic and which would have a major impact on the meeting

 critical path - a listing of significant milestones and achievements, by date, necessary to complete a defined plan

 crowd control - direction provided to attendees to ensure smooth traffic flow

  customs broker - person or company which provides customs clearing services to shippers of goods to and from another country

 cut-off date - designated date when the facility will release a block of sleeping rooms to the general public; the date is typically three to four weeks before the convention; also called the reservation review date

 data projector - the projection of a computer signal from a personal computer, laptop or other computer device onto a screen from a LCD or equivalent projector for viewing by audience

 delegate - 1) registered meeting participant; 2) voting representative at a meeting

 delegate profile - a description of the typical delegate which includes such details as age, sex, hometown, companions

 demographics - characteristics that help create a profile of exhibitors and attendees; may include company location, job function, purchase budget, purchase intentions.

 Demonstration - 1) the act of showing how to do something; 2) a group of individuals organized to picket or protest against a group using placards, literature, songs, shouts and, sometimes, marches or sit-ins

 Destination - a city, area or country which can be marketed to groups or individuals as a place to visit or hold a meeting

 destination management company (DMC) - company or professional individual engaged in organizing tours, meetings of all types and their related activities; same as professional congress organizer (PCO).

 dissolve unit - devise that activates fade-out and fade-in of slides from one projector to another by regulating voltage sent to projector lamps

 distortion - unclear audio signal that results from giving too much power to a speaker or amplifier

 drayage - delivery of exhibit materials from loading the dock to an assigned exhibit space, removing empty crates, returning crates at the end of show for recrating, and delivering materials back to loading dock for carrier loading

 educational credit - acknowledgement of participation in continuing education as recognized by an accredited authority

 emergency action plan - procedures for response to any number of emergency situations, such as medical emergencies, fire and bomb threats

 entry requirements - specific government requirements people and/or materials must have before entering a country other then one’s own (e.g. passport, visa)

  environmental audit - an inspection completed to assess practices which impact on the environment

 evaluation - 1) critiquing and rating the overall success of a meeting; 2) developing a meeting profile from accurate meeting statistics.



event resumé - a collection of all details relative to a meeting’s needs; this document is circulated to all key personnel in the facility and organization

 exhibit - physical space in which products and services are displayed and sold

 exhibition - display of products or promotional material for the purposes of public relations, sales and/or marketing; same as exposition.

 Exhibitor - person or firm that displays its products or services at the show

 exhibitors’ manual - manual containing general show information, labor/service order forms, rules and regulations and other information pertinent to an exhibitor’s participation in an exposition

 exhibitors’ prospectus - promotional materials for prospective exhibitors to encourage participation; contains information about technical points, cost of exhibition space, floor plan of the exhibition and application for participation

 exhibit services contractor - a firm that provides set-up, booth materials, decorations, signs, and many other materials and services needed for an exposition

 exposition - a display of products and/or services; same as exhibition

 facility - a structure that is built, installed or established to serve a particular purpose

 familiarization tour(FAM Trip) - offered to potential buyers of a meeting site, a program designed to acquaint participants with specific destinations or services and to stimulate the booking of a meeting; often offered in groups, but sometimes on an individual basis

 feedback - 1) regeneration of sound from audio speakers back through a microphone causing a squealing sound; 2) response about an activity, policy, or idea.

 financial procedures -a guide containing accounting and banking techniques

 fixed cost -the day-to-day cost of doing business that is pre-committed, such as salaries, insurance, lease expenses, utilities, etc.

 fixed expense -expense incurred regardless of the number of meeting attendees

 flip chart -large pad of paper placed on an easel and used by a speaker for illustrative purposes

 floor plan - a schematic reproduction of the layout for a specific room including placement of every item (e.g., placement of chairs, tables, furniture, plants, entrance doorways, AV, etc.)

 focal length - l ) distance from the center of the lens to the film plane; 2) size of lens required to obtain a specific size picture.

 follow-up - activities and communications which take place after a meeting; to be distinguished from "evaluation," which is a measurement of the achievement of defined objectives

 follow spotlight - manually movable spotlight (a brilliant light projected onto a particular area)

 force majeure  - contract clause which limits liability should the event or performance be prevented due to Acts of God, Acts of War, civil disturbances, labor strikes or other disruptive circumstances beyond an artist’s or a facility’s control; (Usually inclement weather does not apply.)

 front screen projection - projection of an image onto the front surface of a light reflecting screen from a projector placed within or behind the audience

 function sheet - detailed instructions relevant to a particular event; also known as banquet event order (a BEO) or résumé sheet

 function space - space in facility where private functions or events can be held

 general session - a meeting open to all those in attendance at a convention; also called a plenary session

 gooseneck - flexible support attached to a podium or lectern to support a microphone that can be raised/lowered to suitable height for speaker

 graphics - communicative elements such as color, copy, art, photographs, translites, etc. used to illustrate a booth theme, conference marketing materials or to enhance décor

 gratuity - mandatory charge added to food and beverage prices; usually ranging from 15 to 22 percent of food and beverage prices; ostensibly to go to service personnel, some properties take a percentage for administrative costs, confusing it with a service charge

 green meeting - a meeting in which methods are used to create an environmentally-sensitive meeting (e.g., use of Internet instead of paper, use of china instead of paper plates, donation of surplus food to a food bank, use of recycling, etc.)

 guarantee - the minimum number of servings to be paid for by the client, whether not consumed they are actually consumed; usually required at least forty-eight hours in advance

 guest - individual invited to attend or participate in a meeting at no charge; may also refer to an accompanying person who may pay a fee

 guest room pick up - actual number of guest bedrooms used

 guest/youth program - a program for persons who accompany a meeting attendee and who do not necessarily take an active part in the meeting

 herringbone setup - rows of chairs or tables slanted in a V-shape facing a head table, stage or speaker; sometimes referred to as chevron; same as V-shape setup

 hidden costs - unexpected charges that need to be anticipated (e.g., gratuities)

 hold-harmless clause - part of a contract declaring that neither party will hold the other responsible for any damages or theft to materials or equipment owned or rented by either party; clause declaring that one party will take responsibility for damages assessed as the result of another party’s inaction

 hollow square setup - tables set in a square (or rectangle) with chairs placed around the outside of the table; center (inside) tables are hollow

 honorarium - voluntary payment made for services where no fee is legally required

 honored guest - a VIP who is present during a meeting, but is not a participant

 host organization - an association, corporate body, town, country or other such party that invites an event to take place within or under its jurisdiction or its financial responsibility.

 host bar - guests do not pay for drinks, often sponsored; also called an open bar or sponsored bar

 housing controlling - a number of guest rooms with room blocks actually occupied during a particular night

 housing plan - various types of accommodation facilities that meet the needs of the meeting

 housing bureau - reservation office, often within a convention bureau, which coordinates housing for groups

  indirect cost - also called overhead or administrative costs, these are expenses not directly related to the meeting; they can include salaries, rent, and building and equipment maintenance

 incentive - reward offered to stimulate greater effort

 indemnification - a clause appearing in most contracts stating that one party agrees to hold the other harmless (not liable) in spite of what happens and whose fault it is; provides basis for compensation for incurred hurt, loss or damage

 in-kind - contributions of goods and services without monetary exchange

 inside booth - exhibit space with exhibit booths on both sides and back; also called inline booth

 installation - setting up exhibit booth and materials according to instructions and drawings

 international delegate - a registered participant who resides outside the host nation

 international meeting - 1) international/intercontinental: a meeting of an organization with multi-national membership that is available to meet on more than one continent; 2) international/continental: a meeting of an organization with multi-national membership that is available to meet on only one continent; 3) international/regional: a meeting of an organization with multi-national membership that is available to meet in only a given region of one continent

 interpretation - oral translation from one language to another

 island booth - style of exhibit space that includes four or more booth spaces with aisles on all four sides

 itinerary - detailed schedule of a visit or tour

 keynote speaker - speaker whose presentation establishes the theme or tone of the meeting

 keystoning - distortion of a projected image on a screen, where the image is wider on top and narrower on bottom; (shaped like a keystone in the center of an arch); the image distorts from a rectangle into a trapezoid because the projector is above or below the center point of the screen; either the top or the bottom become wider because it is further away from the lens; to adjust for keystoning the top of the screen can be tilted a little, either forward or back; many of the new data projectors allow you to tilt the lens to solve the problem

 lanyard - a cord or string worn around the neck, and attached to a badge

 lavalier microphone - portable microphone that hooks around neck or is clipped to clothing; also known as a necklace, lapel, or pendant microphone

 lecture - discourse given before an audience, especially for instructional purposes

 level of authority - the establishment and description of the level of responsibility and accountability of each person within a specific group

 letter of agreement - document outlining proposed services, space, or products which becomes binding upon written approval by both parties; lists services, foods, beverages, and so forth

 liability - legal responsibility for damage or injuries to make good a loss or claim

 liquidated damages - part of a contract dealing with procedures, penalties, and rights of the party causing damages; settling of the damages dispute

 logistics - tasks undertaken to ensure the efficient and effective management of materials, information and people for the implementation of the meeting

 marshalling yard - a holding area where trucks check in and wait for further instructions before delivering freight to the exhibit hall.

 masking drapes - drapes used to cover storage and other unsightly areas.

 master account - all items that are charged to a group; may include room, tax, incidentals, food and beverage, audio visual equipment, décor, etc.; same as master bill

 media strategy - a plan for managing media formats

 meeting - a gathering for business, educational, or social purposes; associations often use the term to refer to a combination of educational sessions and exhibits. Includes seminars, forums, symposiums, conferences, workshops, clinics, etc.

 meeting agenda - a list, outline, or plan of items to be done or considered at a meeting or during a specific time block

 meeting history - record of an organization’s previous meetings; usually includes information pertaining to original room block, actual room pickup, meeting space required, and food and beverage revenues generated

 meeting specifications - information about a meeting (e.g., hotel occupancy patterns, function space, food and beverage requirements) that is sent directly to a venue or circulated by the convention and visitors bureau

 meeting theme - the central motif around which the meeting and elements of the meeting are designed

 message center - the location where participants can pick up messages

 mixer - audio unit by which sound signals from all sources feed into one system; allows for dissimilar inputs (microphone and line) to be combined and controlled into one output

 move-in - process of setting up the exhibition

 move-out - process of tearing down the exhibition and removing crated materials

 multimedia - equipment, materials and teaching aides used in sound and visual presentations; includes what is referred to as audio visual (AV)

 objective - formalized statements of outcomes to be anticipated as a result of a meeting

 official language - initial language in which a document is drafted or a speech is delivered

 onsite - at the site of the meeting/program component

 onsite registration - process of signing up for an event on the day of, or at the site of, the event

 onsite office - a working office located at the site of the meeting

 operations manual - the step-by-step procedures developed for the use of staff to conduct the meeting; also known as conference manual, procedural guide, meeting resource guide book, conference résumé

 operations sheet - detailed instructions for a particular event prepared by the facility; also known as a banquet order, event order, resumé sheet or function sheet

 overhead projector - equipment which projects an image on a screen by passing light through a transparent slide or other transparency

 overset - number of covers set over the guarantee; paid for by the client only if actually consumed

 paperless conference - providing all documentation in other media besides print (including marketing, registration, speaker materials); can be on a website, Internet, disk or in CD ROM format

 participant - a person attending a meeting; may include speakers (see also attendees, delegates)

 participant expectation - specific information regarding what attendees will pay for elements of the meeting, and what they expect to get from the meeting

 participant profile - data concerning attendees, including their average age, spending habits, etc.

 peninsula booth - a style of exhibit space that consists of at least two booth spaces with aisles on three sides, and are attached to other exhibit space at one end

 perimeter wall booth - style of exhibit space that is located on an outside wall

 personal digital assistant (PDA) - a pocket-sized personal computer. PDAs usually can store phone numbers, appointments, and to-do lists

 physical requirements - the architectural design, furnishings, temperature, and other such factors that are necessary to meet the needs of a meeting

 plasma screen - flat screen that has a clear image even in ambient lighting

 plenary session - general assembly for all persons actively involved in a meeting

 post conference meeting(s) - a meeting between a meeting manager and facility staff to discuss and evaluate an event as soon as it is over; may involve a final review of the master account

 post conference report - a report provided by the meeting facility to the meeting professional accounting for the meeting’s actual sleeping room pick-up, food and beverage functions, function-room breakdown, exhibit information (if appropriate) and activities; a meeting’s history can be compiled from this document

 poster - session 1) display of reports and papers, usually scientific, accompanied by authors or researchers; 2) a session dedicated to the discussion of the posters shown inside the meeting area; when this discussion is not held in a special session, it can take place directly between the person presenting the poster and interested delegate(s)

 power drop - describes the location where power is required for any equipment that is necessary during the course of an events; commonly used for lighting rigs, audio rigs and audio visual equipment

 pre conference meeting - briefing(s) with meeting professional, facility and/or suppliers to review the purpose and details of the meeting

 pre and post program(s) - organized outings taking place before (pre) or after (post) the working conference for both delegates and accompanying persons.

 preprocess proof - a copy of filmed camera-ready copy that allows final proofing before printing

 pre registration - the process of registering prior to the event; to be distinguished from "onsite" registration which takes place at the site of the event

 presenter - person explaining a given topic in an informational session

 print broker - a person in charge of managing print arrangements

 printing and electronic distribution - two methods of distributing information to stakeholders (via traditional hard copy or electronically)

 proceedings - published volume transcribing the conference sessions in full; may or may not include details of discussions

 program - schedule of events giving details of times, places and speakers

 promotion - the aspect of marketing that deals with generating program awareness amongst the target audience

 promotional mix - combination of various strategies to general program awareness

 property - establishment such as a hotel, motel, inn, resort, conference centre, or meeting facility

 prospectus - information package; prospectus is written for a specific audience (e.g., exhibitor or sponsor) to encourage participation, promoting chief features and benefits

 protection clauses - also known as performance clauses; attrition clauses that are the protective contractual device suppliers may use regarding accountability of both parties related to room nights, space needs and food and beverage needs

 protocol - customs and regulations dealing with diplomatic formality, precedence, and etiquette

 publicity - a media campaign, normally consisting of a series of public notices and advertising activities, aimed at ensuring maximum attendance by focusing attention on an event

 reader - one who reads printed material out loud to visually impaired attendees

 reader board - board or electronic screen listing the day’s events at a venue or facility

 ready room - area set aside for speakers to meet, relax, test AV, or prepare prior to or between speeches

 rear screen projection - image projected on the back surface of a screen which is placed between the viewer and the projector

 receiver - consumer-type television set that has a tuner and accepts regular broadcast signals

 registration - 1) process by which an individual indicates his intent to attend a conference or stay at a property; 2) method of booking and payment; 3) process of recording data about an attendee (or exhibitor), sending a confirmation and creating a badge used onsite

 registration packet (kit) (materials) - packet of meeting materials such as program book, tickets, maps, etc. handed out at the registration desk



registration policy - written rule that outlines how certain situations will be handled during event registration

 registration procedure - definition of the method used to carry out the policies so registration can proceed

 request for proposal (RFP) - a document that stipulates what services the organization wants from an outside contractor and requests a bid to perform such services

 résumé -a collection of all details for a single meeting needs; will include sleeping room information, billing arrangements and meeting requirements including food, beverage and audio visual; distributed to all hotel departments and usually shared with the meeting organizer

 return on investment (ROI) - 1) net profit divided by net worth; a financial ratio indicating the degree of profitability; 2) determination if objectives met (e.g., did sales increase by 10%? Did attendance increase by 15%?)

 rider - expenses and requirements related to entertainment or entertainers over and above their contract fee; includes travel, food and beverage, staging requirements, etc.

 rigging - the assembling of machinery, steel construction and heavy materials, such as lighting from a facility ceiling

 risk management  - cognizing the possibility of injury, damage or loss, and having a means to prevent it or provide insurance

 riser - platforms of various heights (30.5-45.5 cm [12-18"], 45.5-61 cm [18-24"] or 61-91.5 cm [24-36"]) used to elevate the speaker or head table so they can be seen throughout the room

 room block - the number of guest bedrooms reserved for a specified length of time for those who will be attending an event

 rooming list - roster of individuals requiring guest bedroom accommodations, including type of accommodation and arrival and departure dates and payment methods

 room monitor - the person who ensures that the meeting is proceeding according to plan

 room rate - fee charged for guest bedrooms

 rounds - banquet table, usually 60 inches (152 centimeters) in diameter; also available in 66- and 72-inch (168- and 183 centimeter) diameters, that seat 8 to 10 people

 seminar - 1) lecture and dialogue allowing participants to share experiences in a particular field under the guidance of an expert discussion leader. 2) meeting or series of meetings of from 10 to 50 specialists who have different specific skills but have a specific common interest and come together for training or learning purposes; the work schedule of a seminar has the specific object of enriching the skills of the participants

 service levels - ratio of servers to banquet guests (e.g. 1:20 or 1:24)

 show producer (manager) - company or individual who initiates and plans an event, is responsible for all aspects of planning, promoting and producing an exhibition, including renting a site and soliciting exhibitors

 show services - materials handling, pipe and drape

 signage - a visual means of communicating either direction, information or instruction

 signing authority - person who has authority to sign documents, thereby authorizing charges, guaranteed payment, contracting space, services, and supplies

 simultaneous translation - interpretation of the speaker’s words into another language while the speech is in progress

 site - 1) area, location, property or specific facility to be used for meeting; 2) a particular platform or location for loading or unloading at a place; see Venue

 site inspection - personal, careful investigation of a property, facility, or area

 site selection - the process of choosing a location for a meeting

 skewing - zigzag pattern on a TV screen due to improper head alignment

 slippage - the percentage of guest bedrooms that do not materialize from the negotiated room nights

 SMARTboard© - allows notes generated during a meeting to be viewed on a computer screen, where they can be stored, e-mailed to others, or printed

  speakers bureau - an organization that locates, promotes and books speakers

 speaker release form - written permission to record (and sell) audio and visual reproductions of the presentation

 sponsor - 1) limited sponsor, one who assumes a specified financial responsibility; 2) meeting sponsor, person(s) or organization assuming full responsibility for all costs and phases of producing a meeting

 sponsorship - donated financial or material support, usually in exchange for recognition; paid opportunity for an exhibitor to increase its visibility at the show.

 sponsorship agreement - a complete written version of the terms and conditions of sponsorship and recognition

 sponsorship benefits package - a clear summary of the event, including specific recognition the sponsor will receive in exchange for money, goods, and/or services

 sponsorship committee - a group of both meeting staff members and host organization members that focus on gathering sponsorships for an event

  staging - 1) design and placement of all elements being used for a meeting or event; 2) the implementation of a meeting or event

 staging guide - compilation of all function sheets, scripts, instructions, room setup diagrams, directory of key personnel, forms, and other material relating to the event

 standard booth - an 8’ X 10’ or 10’ X 10’ exhibit booth; the most commonly used booth

 subsidy - money obtained from bodies or authorities to underwrite an expenditure

 supplier - a person, company, facility, agency or other entity who sells space, goods or services for meetings

 symposium - meeting of a number of experts in a particular field at which papers are presented by specialists on particular subjects and discussed with a view to making recommendations concerning the problems under discussion

 T-shape setup - series of tables set up in the shape of the block T with chairs set all around except at head table.

 Teleconference - type of meeting which brings together people in two or more locations through telecommunications; may involve audio with or without graphics, or full motion video

 TelePrompTer® - electronic device which allows display of script for speaker to read during presentation

 theme event - an event designed so that food, decorations and entertainment all relate to one central motif

 total meeting value - the sum of all revenue that the meeting will bring to the facility; also known as total business value

 traffic flow - the movement of persons and vehicles inside and outside a meeting; planning takes into account volume and direction

 transportation coordinator - a person in charge of planning and managing transportation arrangements for participants

 turnover - 1) breaking down and resetting a room with a different setup; 2) a pastry that usually has a fruit filling

 valance - an overhead, decorative border normally used as a light baffle

 variable cost - an expense item that changes according to the number of attendees present at a meeting

 venue- 1) site or destination of meeting, event or show; 2) location of performance such as hall, ballroom, auditorium, etc.

 VIP host - meeting professional, host organization member, or local CVB member assigned to greet VIP participants and/or their staff on arrival, and act as liaison

  video conferencing - a meeting between two or more people or groups across a distance, including video, audio, and potentially other data, utilizing telecommunications or communications satellites for transmission of the signal

 virtual conference - any meeting where people at two or more distant locations are linked using video, audio and data for two-way communication via satellite communications or the Internet; each party sees and hears the other through TV screen or computer monitor and audio speakers

 virtual trade show - exhibit of products or services that can be viewed over the Internet

 walk policy - guest holding confirmed sleeping room reservation sent to another hotel because of overbooking.

 web-based registration - a method of registration using the client’s web page or e-mail rather than paper

 webcasting - an event that broadcasts the audio and/or video portion of a keynote presentation or other educational sessions over the Web in real-time or on-demand.

 wings - 1) drape that extends from floor to ceiling on either side of the screen; 2) off-stage area out of audience sight lines.

 wireless audience response system - hand held infrared or radio signal devices that record polling simultaneously and confidentially  



workshop - 1) meeting of several persons for intensive discussion; the workshop concept has been developed to compensate for diverging views in a particular discipline or on a particular subject; 2) informal and public session of free discussion organized to take place between formal plenary sessions or commissions of a congress or of a conference, either on a subject chosen by the participants themselves or else on a special problem suggested by the organizers; 3) training session in which participants, often through exercises, develop skills and knowledge in a given field

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