Đảo từ với câu điều kiện: Đảo từ với câu điều kiện loại 1



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INVERSION

Để nhấn mạnh ý nào trong câu mà mình muốn diễn đạt, ta dùng phép đảo ngữ. Thông thường, phép đảo ngữ được thực hiện bằng cách đưa một trạng từ hoặc một cụm trạng ngữ ra đầu câu, đồng thời đảo trợ dộng từ hay động từ lên trước chủ ngữ.



Đảo từ với câu điều kiện:
1. Đảo từ với câu điều kiện loại 1
a) Câu điều kiện loại 1 có sử dụng “ should” thay hiện tại không xác định chỉ khả năng xáy ra ít hơn ở tương lai. Đảo “should” lên đầu câu thay “If”
Eg: If it should rain tonight, I will stay at home
==> Should it rain..........
b) Điều kiện loại 1 có sử dụng thời hiện tại hoàn thành
Lấy “should” thay “If” sao đó để nguyên thể hoàn thành với “have done” ở tất cả các ngôi
Eg: If she has finished the work, she can go home
==> Should she have finished ..........
2. Điều kiện loại 2
a) Mệnh đề điều kiện loại 2 có dùng động từ “tobe” ở số nhiều “were” dùng “were” thay”if”
Eg: Iif I were you, i would love him
==> Were I you.................
b) Trong mẫu câu điều kiện loại 2 đặc biệt có dùng “If” đầu câu ( nếu không phải vì................. “were” khỏi “not’’sau đó đảo lên đầu câu thay “if”)
Eg: If it weren’t for your progress, i wouldn’t be here
==> Were it not your ....
c) Mẫu câu điều kiện loại 3 đặc biệt
If + S+ were+ to do
Thay động từ ở quá khứ của mệnh đề điêu kiện loại 2
Eg: If i were to speak.......
==> Với mẫu câu này đảo “were” lên đầu câu thay “If”
3. Điều kiện loại 3
a) Dùng “Had” đảo lên đầu câu thay “If”
Eg: If she had worked harder last year, she wouldn’t have failed the exam
==> Had she worked harder last year............
b) Câu điều kiện loại 3 đặc biệt đi với đại từ “it” đầu câu
If it hadn’t been for + N ==> Nếu không phải vì.......
==> Tách “had” ra khỏi “not” đảo lên đầu câu thay “If”
Eg: If it hadn’t been for hot weather,we would have had a wonderful holiday
==> Had it not been for............................
c) Mệnh để điều kiện loại 3 đặc biệt có sử dụng” were to have done” thay quá khứ hoàn thành
Eg; If she had driven carefully, she wouldn’t have cause the accident
==> If she were to have driven......
Đảo “were” lên đầu câu thay “If”
==> Were she to have driven

Đảo ngữ với….. So….that…./ ……such……… that…….

1. So + adj : Trong mẫu câu trạng từ chỉ kết quả
eg; She is so rich that she can buy what she likes
Đảo “so + adj” lên đầu câu
==> So rich is she that...................

2. So + adv that............. : Mệnh đề trạng ngữ kết quả sau trạng từ
Đảo “ so to+ adv” lên đầu câu

eg: He worked so hard in the past that he is now weak


==> So hard did he work in the past that.......

3. Câu có sử dụng “such” thường gặp các dạng:

a) Trong câu có dùng “ so great, so much” biến đổi “ so great, so much

==> “ such” đảo lên đầu câu để nhấn mạnh

eg; The question was so great that he had to think it over
==> Such was the question...............

b)Trong câu có dùng “such”
S + tobe+ such+ that+ mệnh đề
Đảo “such” lên đầu câu để nhấn mạnh

eg: She is so poor that she can’t go school


Her poverty is such that........
==>Such is her poverty that........

Các cấu trúc đảo ngữ khác:

1. Never

Ex: I never come to work late

→ Never do I come to work late

2. At no time=never

Ex: They never suspected him of being a spy

→ At no time did they suspect him of being a spy

3. Seldom, rarely, scarcely

Ex: Rarely has Big Ben gone wrong

I remember very few thing about my early childhood

→ scarcely do I remember things about my early childhood



4. Only by + Ving, Aux + SV

Ex: You can’t succeed unless you try hard

→ Only by trying hard can you succeed

5. Only with + Noun, Aux + SV

Ex: The bank lent him some money, which enabled him to buy a car

→ Only with the bank’s money could he buy a car

6. Only after + Noun, Aux + SV

Ex: He only realized what his father meant to him after his death

→ Only after his father’s death did he realize what he meant

7. Only when/after SV, Aux + SV

Ex: I only recognized who he was when he called hi name

→ Only when he called his name, did I recognize who he was

8. On no account Aux + SV: không vì bất cứ lí do gì

Ex: You should never come to work late

→ On no account should you come to work late

9. Not until: mãi đến tận

a. Not until + Noun, Aux + SV

Ex: Man didn’t fly into pace until the early 1960s

→ Not until the early 1960s did man fly into space

b. Not until + SV, Aux + SV

Ex: They continued to feel unsafe until they got home

→ Not until they got home did they feel safe
10. Little Aux + SV

Ex: I don’t know much about astronomy

→ Little do I know about astronomy.

11. Hardly Aux + SV: hầu như không

Ex: They hardly had arguments

→ Hardly did they have arguments

+ Hardly anyone wears a hat nowadays

Hardly anything is worth buying

12. In/Under no circumstances Aux + SV: dù trong bất cứ hoàn cảnh nào (không dùng phủ định trong mệnh đề sau)

Ex: Under no circumstances must you betray your country



13. Hardly had S done when S did: vừa mới…………..thì đã

No sooner had S done than S did: chưa kịp………….thì đã

Ex: - He had just gone out when his friend called

→ Hardly had he gone out when when his friend called

- The doorbell rang the moment she lay down

→ No sooner had she lain down than the door bell rang

14. No longer Aux + SV

Ex: They no longer keep in touch with each other

→ No longer do they keep in touch with each other

15. So/Such + adj/adv Aux + SV

Ex: - He became so suspicious that he didn’t let anyone in

→ So suspicious did he become that he didn’t let anyone in

- He was such a fast speaker that it was difficult for us to follow him

→ Such was he a fast speaker that it was difficult for us to follow him/ So fast did he speak that that it was difficult for us to follow him

16. Not only Aux + SV, but S also V

Ex: They robbed him. They beat him

Not only did they rob him, but they also beat him

17. Nor Aux + SV: cũng thế

Ex: She couldn’t speak Italian nor could she speak Spanish



18. Neither and so

- A:"I am not into hip hop." B: "Neither am I." (Or: "Nor am I.")

- A: "I am fond of flamenco dancing." B: "So am I."

19. Conditionals with inversions

- Should SV, SV; - Were SC, SV

- Had S done, S would have done

Ex: -Should you meet him in Ha noi, give him my regards. - Were I you, I would try again.

- Were they to escape, they would be arrested again. - Had he kept calm, he would have succeeded.

20. Here/ There ở đầu câu:

Ex: There is a letter for you on the desk.

Here is your pen.

21. Here/ There trong câu cảm

Ex: There goes the bus!

Here comes George!

22. Inversions after adjectives

Ex: Blessed are the children who are still unaware of what the future holds.


Gone are the days when I could have been happy
EXERCISES

I. Choose the most suitable words underlined.

  1. Jim promised that he would never/ never would he tell anyone else.

  2. Not until it was too late I remembered / did I remember I call Susan.

  3. Hardly had we settle down in our seats than/when the lights went out.

  4. Only after checking three times I was/was I certain of the answer.

  5. At no time I was aware/was I aware of anything out of usual.

  6. Only Mary sang Sally passed/ did they pass the final examination.

  7. So the waves were high/ So high were the waves that swimming was dangerous.

  8. Only when Peter has arrived / has Peter arrived can we begin the program.

  9. No sooner had it stopped raining than/when the sun came out.

  10. If should you leave early/ should you leave early could you leave me a lift?

II. Rewrite these sentences, using NEVER.

1. She has never been so happy before.

……………………………………………………………………………………

2. I have never heard such nonsense!

……………………………………………………………………………………

3. I have never seen such a mess in my life.

……………………………………………………………………………………

4. Our profits this year are higher than they have ever been.

……………………………………………………………………………………

5. She would never again trust her own judgment when buying antiques.

……………………………………………………………………………………

6. The firm has never before laid on such a sumptuous celebration.

……………………………………………………………………………………

7. I’ve never come across such a horrifying film.

……………………………………………………………………………………

8. I have never been so moved by a Shakespeare production.

……………………………………………………………………………………

9. I never for one moment thought the consequences would be so far- reaching.

……………………………………………………………………………………

10. I had never tasted such a wonderful combination of flavors before.

……………………………………………………………………………………

III. Rewrite these sentences, using RARELY, SELDOM or LITTLE.


  1. One rarely find good service these days.

……………………………………………………………………………………

  1. She has rarely traveled more than fifty miles from her village.

……………………………………………………………………………………

  1. It is very unusual for a military campaign to have been fought with so little loss of life.

……………………………………………………………………………………

  1. It is unusual for the interior of the island to be visited by tourists.

……………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Public borrowing has seldom been so high.

……………………………………………………………………………………

  1. They had seldom participated in such a fascinating ceremony.

……………………………………………………………………………………

  1. They little suspected that the musical was going to be a runaway success.

……………………………………………………………………………………

  1. The embassy staff little realized that Ted was a secret agent.

……………………………………………………………………………………

  1. She didn’t realized what would happen to her next.

……………………………………………………………………………………

  1. I didn’t think that one day I’d be appearing in films rather then just watching them.

……………………………………………………………………………………

IV. Rewrite these sentences, using IN, AT , UNDER, or ON.

1. Keith certainly can’t be held responsible for the accident.

……………………………………………………………………………………

2. The children themselves are not in any way to blame for the disaster.

…………………………………………………………………………………

3.The existence of extraterrestrial is not confirmed by the report.

………………………………………………………………………………………

4. I was never shown how to operate the machinery.

……………………………………………………………………………………

5. He never suspected that she was a witch.

……………………………………………………………………………………

6. There has never been a time when the English language was not in a state of change.

…………………………………………………………………………………...

7. Miss Weaver will not be offered the job under any circumstances.

……………………………………………………………………………………

8. You should not send money to us by post under any circumstances.

……………………………………………………………………………………

9.We can’t exchange tickets in any circumstances.

……………………………………………………………………………………

10.I won’t go out that way to visit him again on my account!

……………………………………………………………………………………

V. Rewrite these sentences, using inversion with NOT.

1. He is my friend as well as yours.

……………………………………………………………………………………

2. He booked tickets for the afternoon performance and the evening performance as well.

……………………………………………………………………………………

3. Burglars stole a thousand pounds’ worth of electrical goods, and left the flat in an awful mess.

……………………………………………………………………………………

4. Tony was not only late, but he had left all his books behind.

……………………………………………………………………………………

5. You will enhance your posture and improve your acting ability on this course.

……………………………………………………………………………………

6. It isn’t worth considering his suggestion for a moment.

……………………………………………………………………………………

7. She didn’t shed a tear when the story ended in tragedy.

……………………………………………………………………………………

8. The manager not once offered us an apology.

……………………………………………………………………………………

9. She made no sound as she crept upstairs.

……………………………………………………………………………………

10.He only thought about having a holiday abroad after he retired.

…………………………………………………………………………………

VI. Rewrite these sentences, using inversion with ONLY.

1. I only realized how dangerous the situation had been when I got home.

…………………………………………………………………………………

2. It wasn’t until last week that the Agriculture Minister admitted defeat.

……………………………………………………………………………………

3. I understood Hamlet only after seeing it on the stage.

……………………………………………………………………………………

4. They didn’t get round to business until they had finished eating.

……………………………………………………………………………………

5. They had to wait for twelve hours before their flight left.

……………………………………………………………………………………

6. I didn’t realize who he was until later.

……………………………………………………………………………………

7. The door could not be opened without using force.

……………………………………………………………………………………

8. I won’t agree until Tom’s apologized.

……………………………………………………………………………………

9. To get the 40% discount, you must buy all twelve books at the same time.

……………………………………………………………………………………

10.The only way you can become a good athlete is by training hard every day.

……………………………………………………………………………………

VII. Rewrite these sentences, using inversion with SHOULD.

1. If the Government were forced into another election, it would be the favourite to win.

……………………………………………………………………………………

2. If you should wish to make an appointment to see Dr Simons, she is available between 9.00 and 11.00.

……………………………………………………………………………………

3. If you should have further problems with your printer, contact your dealer for advice.

……………………………………………………………………………………

4. If you should decide to accept the post, you will be expected to start work on 1st April.

……………………………………………………………………………………

5. If we hear any further news, we will be in touch immediately.

…………………………………………………………………………………

6. If you wish to take advantage of the offer, kindly tick the box on your order form.

……………………………………………………………………………………

7. If the film should be a post office success, they may be sequel.

……………………………………………………………………………………

8. If you should change your mind, there will always be a job for you here.

……………………………………………………………………………………

VIII. Rewrite these sentences, using inversion with WERE OR HAD

1. If the chemical were to leak, a large area of the sea would be contaminated.

……………………………………………………………………………………

2. If Germany were to beat Romania, they would face Italy in the final.

……………………………………………………………………………………

3. If Mr Morgan were still head master, he would not permit such bad behavior.

……………………………………………………………………………………

4. If you had given it on time, you would have got a high mark.

……………………………………………………………………………………

5. If she had become a lawyer, as her parents wished, she would have earn a large salary.

……………………………………………………………………………………

6. If anything has gone wrong with my plan, I would have held responsibility.

……………………………………………………………………………………

7.If it hadn’t been for Henry,I might not have met you.

……………………………………………………………………………………

8. If only they had confirmed by phone, the airline could have warned them.

……………………………………………………………………………………

9. The coast guards could have saved the vessels if they had been notified.

……………………………………………………………………………………

10. If his solicitor hadn’t advised him, he would have made a serious mistake.

……………………………………………………………………………………

IX. Rewrite each of the following sentences with the given words in such a way that it means the same as the sentence printed above it.

1. He spent all his money. He even borrowed some from me.

Not only_______________________________________________________

2. He had hardly left the office when the telephone rang.

 No sooner _____________________________________________________

3. I had only just put the phone down when the boss rang back.

 Hardly _______________________________________________________

4. He didn’t finish his work until the bell rang.

 Not until ______________________________________________________

5. We only began to see the symptoms of the disease after several months.

 Only _________________________________________________________

6. I have never seen anyone in my life drink as much as you.

 Never ________________________________________________________

7. A sleeping dog was lying under the table.

 Under the table _________________________________________________

8. His brother had rarely been more excited.

Rarely_________________________________________________________

9. The facts were not all made public until later.

Only__________________________________________________________

10. If I had realized what would happen, I wouldn’t have accepted the job.

Had___________________________________________________________

11. The response to our appeal was so great that we has to take on more staff.

 Such__________________________________________________________

12. Harry broke his leg, and also injured his shoulder.

Not only ______________________________________________________

13. The police didn’t at all suspect that the judge was the murderer.

 Little _________________________________________________________

14. If you do happen to see Helen, could you ask her to call me?

Should________________________________________________________

15. The bus driver can not be blamed for the accident in any way.

 In ___________________________________________________________

16. The snowfall was so heavy that all the trains had to be cancelled.

 So ___________________________________________________________

17. If the government raised interest rates. They would lose the election.

Were__________________________________________________________

18. As soon as I got into the bath, someone knocked at the door.

 No sooner _____________________________________________________

19. There was so much uncertainty that the financial markets remained closed.

Such__________________________________________________________

20. It’s not common for there to be so much rain in March.

Seldom________________________________________________________

21. You won’t allowed in until your identify has been checked.

Only__________________________________________________________

22. Just after the play started there was a power failure.

Hardly________________________________________________________

23. The Prime Minister has hardly ever made a speech as inept as this.

Rarely_________________________________________________________

24. We had only just arrived home when the police called.

Scarcely_______________________________________________________

25. Press photographers are banned from taking photographs backstage.

 On no_________________________________________________________

26. The way so much money has been spent to so little purpose must be a record.

 Never before___________________________________________________

27. The judge was taken ill just after the trial proceedings began.

 Barely________________________________________________________

X. Complete each sentences with a suitable word or phrase.

1.…………..had we arrived at the hotel, when there was a power cut.

2………..are members of staff to accept gratuities from clients.

3. ……….Detective Dawson realized what she was to discover!.

4. ………….so many employees taken sick leave at the same time.

5. ……… to pay the full amount now, there would be a ten per cent discount.

6. I supposed, as……….most people, that I would be retiring at 60.

7. ………………..the doctor seen more difficult case.

8. ………….Jean win first prize, but she was also offered a promotion.

9. ……….will late arrival be admitted to the theatre before the interval.

10. …………one missing child been found, than another three disappeared.

XI. Complete each sentence with a suitable word or phrase.


  1. Scarcely …………………………….the pilot had to make an emergent landing.

  2. Little ………………………….what has been going on in her absent.

  3. No sooner ……………………….tan I realized I’d left my bag on the platform.

  4. Only when ……………………….on the light did we notice the hole of the ceiling.

  5. Not until I asked a passer –by …………………. where I was.

  6. Seldom does ………………………below freezing at this time of the year.

  7. Hardly ………………….. his speech, when the minister interrupted.

  8. On no account am ………………..while I am in a meeting.

  9. Rarely has ………………………this school written a better composition.

  10. In no way …………………….. bear responsibility for injured passengers.

………………………………………………………………………………

KEYS

I. Choose the most suitable words underlined.

1. he would never 6. passed

2. did I remember 7. so high were the waves

3. when 8. Peter has arrived

4. was I 9. than

5. was I aware 10. should you leave early



II. Rewrite these sentences, using NEVER.

  1. Never before had she been so happy.

  2. Never have I heard such nonsense!

  3. Never in my life have I seen such a mess.

  4. Never have our profits been higher than/ as higher as they are this year.

  5. Never again would she trust her own judgment when buying antique.

  6. Never before had the firm laid on such a sumptuous celebration.

  7. Never have I come across such a horrifying film.

  8. Never have I been so moved by a Shakespeare production.

  9. Never for one moment did I think the consequences would be so far reaching.

  10. Never before had I tasted such a wonderful combination of flavours.

III. Rewrite these sentences, using IN, AT, UNDER, or ON

  1. In no way can Keith be held responsible for the accident.

  2. In no way are the children themselves to blame for the disaster.

  3. In no way is the existence of extraterrestrial life confirmed by the report.

  4. At no time was I shown how to operate the machine.

  5. At no time did he suspect that he was a witch.

  6. At no time has the English language not been in a state of change.

  7. Under no circumstance will Miss Weaver be offered the job.

  8. Under no circumstance should you send money to us by post.

  9. Under no circumstance can we exchange tickets.

  10. On any account will I go all that way to visit him again.

IV. Rewrite these sentences, using inversion with NOT

  1. Not only is he your friend, but he’s mine too.

  2. Not only did he book tickets for the afternoon performance but he also booked for the evening performance as well.

  3. Not only did the burglars steal a thousand pounds’ worth of electrical goods, they also left the flat in an awful mess.

  4. Not only was Tom late, but he had left all his books behind.

  5. Not only will you enhance your posture but you will (also) improve your acting ability (as well) on this course.

  6. Not for one moment is it worth considering his suggestion /is his suggestion worth considering.

  7. Not a tear did she shed when the story ended in tragedy.

  8. Not once did the manager offer is an apology.

  9. Not a sound did she make as she crept upstairs.

  10. Not until he retired did he think about having a holiday abroad.

V. Rewrite these sentences, using inversion with ONLY

1. Only when I got home did I realize how dangerous the situation had been.

2. Only last week did the Agriculture Minister admit defeat.

3. Only after seeing Hamlet on the stage did I understand it.

4. Only after they had finished eating did they get round to business.

5. Only after they waited for twelve hours did their flight leave.

6. Only after did I realize who she was.

7. Only by (using) force could the door be opened.

8. Only when Tom’s apologized will I agree.

9. Only when you buy all twelve books at the same time can/will you get the 40% discount.



10. Only by training hard can/will/could you become a good athlete.

VI. Rewrite these sentences, using inversion with SHOULD.

  1. Should the government be forces into another election, it would be the favorite to win.

  2. Should you wish to make an appointment to see Dr Simons, she is available between 9.00 and 11.00.

  3. Should you have further problems with your printer, contact your deal for advice.

  4. Should you decide to accept the post, you will be expected to start work on 1st April.

  5. Should we hear any further news, we will be in touch immediately.

  6. Should you wish to take advantage of the offer, kindly tick the box on your order.

  7. Should the film be a box- office success, they may be a sequel.

  8. Should you change your mind, there will always be a job for you here.

VII. Rewrite these sentences, using inversion with WERE or HAD

  1. Were the chemical to leak, a large area of sea would be contaminated.

  2. Were Germany to beat, they would face Italy in the final.

  3. Were Mr Morgan still headmaster, he would not permit such bad behavior.

  4. Had you given it in on time, you would have got a high mark.

  5. Had she become a lawyer, as her parents’ wishes, she would have earned a large salary.

  6. Had anything gone wrong, I would have been held responsible.

  7. Had it not been for Henry, I might not have met you.

  8. Had the coast guards been notified they could have saved the vessels.

  9. Had they confirmed by phone, the airline could have warned them.

  10. Had it not been for his solicitor’s advice, he would have made a serious mistake.

VIII. Rewrite each of the following sentences with the given words in such a way that it means the same as the sentence printed above it.

  1. Not only did he spend all his money but she also borrowed some from me.

  2. No sooner had I left the office than the phone rang.

  3. Hardly had I put the phone down when the boss rang back.

  4. Not until the bell rang did he finish his work.

  5. Only after several months did we begin to see the symptoms of the disease.

  6. Never in my life have seen anyone drink as much as you.

  7. Under the table was lying a sleeping dog.

  8. Rarely had his brother been more excited.

  9. Only later were all the facts made public.

  10. Had I realized what would happen, I wouldn’t have accepted the job.

  11. Such was the responsible to our appeal that we has to take on more staff

  12. Not only did Harry break his leg but he also injured his shoulder.

  13. Little did the police suspect that the judgment was the murderer.

  14. Should you see Helen, could you ask her to call me?

  15. In no way can the bus be blamed for the accident.

  16. So heavy was the snowfall that all the trains had to be cancelled.

  17. Were the government to write interest rates they would lose the election.

  18. No sooner had I got into the bath than someone knocked on the door.

  19. Such was the uncertainty that the financial markets remained closed.

  20. Seldom is there so much rain in March.

  21. Only when your identity has been checked will you be allowed in.

  22. Hardly had the play started when there was a power failure.

  23. Rarely has the Prime Minister made so inept a speech.

  24. Scarcely had we arrived home when the police called.

  25. On no account are press photographers allowed to take photographs backstage.

  26. Never before has so much money been spent to so little purpose!.

  27. Barely had the trial proceedings begun when the judge was taken ill.

IX. Complete each sentences with a suitable word or phrase.

  1. Hardly/ Scarcely 6. do

  2. Under no circumstances 7. Never had /have

  3. Little did 8. Not only did

  4. Never had / Rarely had 9. Under no circumstances

  5. Were you 10. No sooner had

X. Complete each sentence with a suitable word or phrase. (Suggested answers)

1. had the plane taken off, when 6. the temperature fall

2. Does she know 7. had he begun.

3. had the train left 8. I to be disturbed

4. we turned. 9. a pupil at this / a student from

5. did I know 10. does the company.









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