Inversion (ĐẢo ngữ)-collected by NguyễnĐách



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INVERSION (ĐẢO NGỮ)-collected by NguyễnĐách
Trong một số trường hợp các phó từ không đứng ở vị trí bình thường của nó mà đảo lên đứng ở đầu câu nhằm nhấn mạnh vào hành động của chủ ngữ. Người ta gọi đó là câu đảo ngữ. Trong trường hợp đó ngữ pháp sẽ thay đổi, đằng sau phó từ đứng đầu câu là trợ động từ rồi mới đến chủ ngữ và động từ chính:
Ví dụ:
Little did I know that he was a compulsive liar.
At no time (= never) did I say I would accept late homework.
1. Câu đảo ngữ có chứa trạng từ phủ định:
Nhìn chung, câu đảo ngữ thường được dùng để nhấn mạnh tính đặc biệt của một sự kiện nào đó và thường được mở đầu bằng một phủ định từ.
Nhóm từ: never (không bao giờ), rarely (hiếm khi), seldom (hiếm khi).
Câu đảo ngữ chứa những trạng ngữ này thường được dùng với động từ ở dạng hoàn thành hay động từ khuyết thiếu và có thể chứa so sánh hơn.
Ví dụ:
Never have I been more insulted! (Chưa bao giờ tôi bị lăng mạ hơn thế).
Never in her life had she experienced this exhilarating emotion.
Seldom has he seen anything stranger. (Hiếm khi anh ấy nhìn thấy một cái gì kì lạ hơn thế).
Seldom have I seen him looking so miserable.
Nhóm từ: hardly (hầu như không), barely (chỉ vừa đủ, vừa vặn), no sooner (vừa mới), or scarcely (chỉ mới, vừa vặn).
Câu đảo ngữ chứa trạng ngữ này thường được dùng để diễn đạt một chuỗi các sự kiện xảy ra trong quá khứ.
Ví dụ:
Scarcely had I got out of bed when the doorbell rang. (Hiếm khi chuông cửa reo mà tôi thức dậy).
No sooner had he finished dinner when she walked in the door.
(Khi anh ấy vừa mới ăn tối xong thì chị ta bước vào cửa).
2. Nhóm từ kết hợp sau “Only” như: only after, only when, only then
Only after/only when/only then/only if + trợ động từ + S + V
Only by + noun/V-ing + trợ động từ/ động từ khuyết thiếu + S + V….: chỉ bằng cách làm gì
Ví dụ:
Only then did I understand the problem.
Only by hard work will we be able to accomplish this great task.
Only by studying hard can you pass this exam.
Chú ý: nếu trong câu có hai mệnh đề, chúng ta dùng đảo ngữ ở mệnh đề thứ hai:
Only when you grow up, can you understand it.
Only if you tell me the truth, can I forgive you.
Only after the film started did I realise that I'd seen it before. (Chỉ sau lúc đó tôi mới hiểu ra được vấn đề).
3. Nhóm từ: So, Such
Câu đảo ngữ có chứa “So” mang cấu trúc như sau:
So + tính từ + to be + Danh từ …
Ví dụ:
So strange was the situation that I couldn't sleep. (Tình huống này kì lạ khiến tôi không thể ngủ được).
So difficult is the test that students need three months to prepare.
(Bài kiểm tra khó tới mức mà các sinh viên cần 3 tháng chuẩn bị).
Câu đảo ngữ có chứa “Such” mang cấu trúc như sau:
“Such + to be + Danh từ +…”
Ví dụ:
Such is the moment that all greats traverse. (Thật là thời khắc trở ngại lớn lao).
Such is the stuff of dreams. (Thật là một giấc mơ vô nghĩa).
4. Not only….but also…..:không những…….mà còn…..
Not only + trợ động từ + S +V + but also + S + V…
Not only does he study well, but also he sings well.
5. Một số cấu trúc khác
In/ Under no circumstances: Dù trong bất cứ hoàn cảnh nào cũng không.
Under no circumstances should you lend him the money.
• On no account: Dù bất cứ lý do gì cũng không
On no accout must this switch be touched.
Only in this way: Chỉ bằng cách này
Only in this way could the problem be solved
In no way: Không sao có thể
In no way could I agree with you.
By no means: Hoàn toàn không
By no means does he intend to criticize your idea.
• Negative ..., nor + auxiliary + S + V
He had no money, nor did he know anybody from whom he could borrow.
• Khi một mệnh đề mở đầu bằng các thành ngữ chỉ nơi chốn hoặc trật tự thì động từ chính có thể đảo lên chủ ngữ nhưng tuyệt đối không được sử dụng trợ động từ trong trường hợp này.
Clause of place/ order + main verb + S (no auxiliary)
In front of the museum is a statue.
First came the ambulance, then came the police. ( Thoạt đầu là xe cứu thương chạy đến, tiếp sau là cảnh sát.)
• Khi một ngữ giới từ làm phó từ chỉ địa điểm hoặc phương hướng đứng ở đầu câu, các nội động từ đặt lên trước chủ ngữ nhưng tuyệt đối không được sử dụng trợ động từ trong loại câu này. Nó rất phổ biến trong văn mô tả khi muốn diễn đạt một chủ ngữ không xác định:
Under the tree was lying one of the biggest men I had ever seen.
Directly in front of them stood a great castle.
On the grass sat an enormous frog.
Along the road came a strange procession.
• Tân ngữ mang tính nhấn mạnh cũng có thể đảo lên đầu câu:
Not a single word did he say.
• Các phó từ away ( = off ), down, in, off, out, over, round, up... có thể theo sau là một động từ chuyển động và sau đó là một danh từ làm chủ ngữ:
+ Away/down/in/off/out/over/round/up...+ motion verb + noun/noun phrase as a subject.
Away went the runners.
Down fell a dozen of apples...
+ Nhưng nếu một đại từ nhân xưng làm chủ ngữ thì động từ phải để sau chủ ngữ:
Away they went.
Round and round it flew.
* Những dấu hiệu đảo ngữ khác:

Never: không bao giờ -Only by : chỉ bằng cách

Seldom: ít khi, hiếm khi -Nowhere: không nơi nào

Not only :không những -So ….. (that): quá…đến nỗi mà…

Not until: mãi cho tới -So: cũng vậy

Hardly when: vừa mới…. rồi thì… - In no circumstances: không ở trường hợp nào

Hardly ever: ít khi -On no account: trong bất cứ trường hợp nào/

Neither/ nor: cũng không không vì lý do gì

Scarcely when: vừa … thì…

Scarcely ever : ít khi

Only then/ when : chỉ lúc đó

EXERCISES

I. Rewrite these sentences, using inversion.

1. Keith certainly can’t be held responsible for the accident.

In no way ……………………………………………………………………………

2. The children themselves are not in any way to blame for the disaster.

In no ……………………………………………………………………………

3.The existence of extraterrestrial is not confirmed by the report.

In no way……………………………………………………………………………

4. I was never shown how to operate the machinery.

At no time ……………………………………………………………………………

5. He never suspected that she was a witch.

At no time ……………………………………………………………………………

6. He is my friend as well as yours.

Not only ……………………………………………………………………………

7. Tony was not only late, but he had left all his books behind.

Not only ……………………………………………………………………………

8. She made no sound as she crept upstairs.

Not a sound ……………………………………………………………………………

9. I only realized how dangerous the situation had been when I got home.

Only when ………………………………………………………………………………

10. I understood Hamlet only after seeing it on the stage.

Only after ……………………………………………………………………………

11. They didn’t get round to business until they had finished eating.

Only after ……………………………………………………………………………

12. The door could not be opened without using force.

Only by ……………………………………………………………………………

13. If the Government were forced into another election, it would be the favourite to win.

Should ……………………………………………………………………………………

14. If you should wish to make an appointment to see Dr Simons, she is available between 9.00 and 11.00.

Should ……………………………………………………………………………………

15. If the chemical were to leak, a large area of the sea would be contaminated.

Were ……………………………………………………………………………………

16. If you had given it on time, you would have got a high mark.

Had ……………………………………………………………………………………

17.If it hadn’t been for Henry,I might not have met you.

Had ……………………………………………………………………………………

18. He spent all his money. He even borrowed some from me.

Not only…………………………………………………………………………………

19. He had hardly left the office when the telephone rang.

No sooner …………………………………………………………………………………

20. I had only just put the phone down when the boss rang back.

Hardly …………………………………………………………………………………

21. He didn’t finish his work until the bell rang.

Not until …………………………………………………………………………………

22. We only began to see the symptoms of the disease after several months.

Only …………………………………………………………………………………

23. I have never seen anyone in my life drink as much as you.

Never …………………………………………………………………………………

24. A sleeping dog was lying under the table.

Under the table …………………………………………………………………………………

25. His brother had rarely been more excited.

Rarely…………………………………………………………………………………

26. The facts were not all made public until later.

Only…………………………………………………………………………………

27. If I had realized what would happen, I wouldn’t have accepted the job.

Had…………………………………………………………………………………

28. The response to our appeal was so great that we has to take on more staff.

Such…………………………………………………………………………………

29. Harry broke his leg, and also injured his shoulder.

Not only …………………………………………………………………………………

30. The police didn’t at all suspect that the judge was the murderer.

Little …………………………………………………………………………………

31. If you do happen to see Helen, could you ask her to call me?

Should…………………………………………………………………………………

32. The matter could be explained in no other way.


In ………………………………………………………………

33. We had hardly started when it began to rain.


Hardly………………………………………………………………

34. I have seldom heard such beautiful singing.


Seldom………………………………………………………………

35. I shall never forget your kindness.


Never………………………………………………………………
36. I saw only then the danger we were in.
Only………………………………………………………………

37. We had no sooner left the house than it exploded.


No ………………………………………………………………

38. He didn't realize that he had lost the key till he got home.


Not………………………………………………………………

39. They not only robbed you, they smashed everything.


Not………………………………………………………………

40. Half a dozen apples fell down.


Down………………………………………………………………

41. If an emergency should arise, dial 999.


………………………………………………………………

42. If Rex were a little more hardworking, he would not have failed.


………………………………………………………………

43. If Mr Chan had been kinder to his employees, his business would not have collapsed.


………………………………………………………………

44. I had hardly begun to apologize when the door closed .

Hardly ………………………………………………………………………………….
45. I have seldom heard such a talented singer.

Seldom ………………………………………………………………………………….

46. If John had known that she liked curry, he would have brought her to an Indian restaurant.

Had ……………………………………………………………………………………..

47. The artist rarely paid any attention to his agent's advice.

Rarely ……………………………………………………………………………………….

48. He had never felt so depressed.

Never ……………………………………………………………………………………………

49. The shop can in no way be held responsible for customers' lost property.

In no way ……………………………………………………………………………………..

50. The couple had no sooner arrived than the priest started the ceremony.

No sooner …………………………………………………………………………………..

51. Tom only understood the meaning of the comment when he saw his wife's face.

Only when ………………………………………………………………………………….

52. She never at any time said that she was allergic to cats.

Never …………………………………………………………………………………………

53. The restaurant cannot accept animals under any circumstances.    
Under no circumstances ………………………………………………………………….

I. Rewrite these sentences, using inversion.

1. Keith certainly can’t be held responsible for the accident.



In no way ……………………………………………………………………………

can Keith be held responsible for the accident.

2. The children themselves are not in any way to blame for the disaster.



In no ……………………………………………………………………………

way are the children themselves to blame for the disaster.

3.The existence of extraterrestrial is not confirmed by the report.



In no way……………………………………………………………………………

is the existence of extraterrestrial life confirmed by the report.

4. I was never shown how to operate the machinery.



At no time ……………………………………………………………………………

was I shown how to operate the machine.

5. He never suspected that she was a witch.



At no time ……………………………………………………………………………

did he suspect that he was a witch.

6. He is my friend as well as yours.



Not only ……………………………………………………………………………

is he your friend, but he’s mine too.

7. Tony was not only late, but he had left all his books behind.



Not only ……………………………………………………………………………

was Tom late, but he had left all his books behind.

8. She made no sound as she crept upstairs.



Not a sound ……………………………………………………………………………

did she make as she crept upstairs.

9. I only realized how dangerous the situation had been when I got home.

………… Only when

I got home did I realize how dangerous the situation had been.

10. I understood Hamlet only after seeing it on the stage.



Only after ……………………………………………………………………………

seeing Hamlet on the stage did I understand it.

11. They didn’t get round to business until they had finished eating.



Only after ……………………………………………………………………………

they had finished eating did they get round to business.

12. The door could not be opened without using force.



Only by ……………………………………………………………………………

(using) force could the door be opened.

13. If the Government were forced into another election, it would be the favourite to win.



Should ……………………………………………………………………………………

14. If you should wish to make an appointment to see Dr Simons, she is available between 9.00 and 11.00.



Should ……………………………………………………………………………………

13. Should the government be forces into another election, it would be the favorite to win.

14. Should you wish to make an appointment to see Dr Simons, she is available between 9.00 and 11.00.

15. If the chemical were to leak, a large area of the sea would be contaminated.



Were ……………………………………………………………………………………

the chemical to leak, a large area of sea would be contaminated.

16. If you had given it on time, you would have got a high mark.



Had ……………………………………………………………………………………

you given it in on time, you would have got a high mark.

17.If it hadn’t been for Henry,I might not have met you.



Had ……………………………………………………………………………………

it not been for Henry, I might not have met you.

18. He spent all his money. He even borrowed some from me.

Not only_______________________________________________________

19. He had hardly left the office when the telephone rang.

 No sooner _____________________________________________________

20. I had only just put the phone down when the boss rang back.

 Hardly _______________________________________________________

21. He didn’t finish his work until the bell rang.

 Not until ______________________________________________________

22. We only began to see the symptoms of the disease after several months.

 Only _________________________________________________________

23. I have never seen anyone in my life drink as much as you.

 Never ________________________________________________________

24. A sleeping dog was lying under the table.

 Under the table _________________________________________________

25. His brother had rarely been more excited.

Rarely_________________________________________________________

26. The facts were not all made public until later.

Only__________________________________________________________

27. If I had realized what would happen, I wouldn’t have accepted the job.

Had___________________________________________________________

28. The response to our appeal was so great that we has to take on more staff.

 Such__________________________________________________________

29. Harry broke his leg, and also injured his shoulder.

Not only ______________________________________________________

30. The police didn’t at all suspect that the judge was the murderer.

 Little _________________________________________________________

31. If you do happen to see Helen, could you ask her to call me?

Should________________________________________________________


  1. Not only did he spend all his money but she also borrowed some from me.

  2. No sooner had I left the office than the phone rang.

  3. Hardly had I put the phone down when the boss rang back.

  4. Not until the bell rang did he finish his work.

  5. Only after several months did we begin to see the symptoms of the disease.

  6. Never in my life have seen anyone drink as much as you.

  7. Under the table was lying a sleeping dog.

  8. Rarely had his brother been more excited.

  9. Only later were all the facts made public.

  10. Had I realized what would happen, I wouldn’t have accepted the job.

  11. Such was the responsible to our appeal that we has to take on more staff

  12. Not only did Harry break his leg but he also injured his shoulder.

  13. Little did the police suspect that the judgment was the murderer.

  14. Should you see Helen, could you ask her to call me?

32. The matter could be explained in no other way.
In ………………………………………………………………

33. We had hardly started when it began to rain.


Hardly………………………………………………………………

34. I have seldom heard such beautiful singing.


Seldom………………………………………………………………

35. I shall never forget your kindness.


Never………………………………………………………………

36. I saw only then the danger we were in.


Only………………………………………………………………

37. We had no sooner left the house than it exploded.


No ………………………………………………………………

38. He didn't realize that he had lost the key till he got home.


Not………………………………………………………………

39. They not only robbed you, they smashed everything.


Not………………………………………………………………

40. Half a dozen apples fell down.


Down………………………………………………………………

41. If an emergency should arise, dial 999.


………………………………………………………………

42. If Rex were a little more hardworking, he would not have failed.


………………………………………………………………

43. If Mr Chan had been kinder to his employees, his business would not have collapsed.


………………………………………………………………

32. In no other way could the matter be explained.
33. Hardly had we started when it began to rain.
34. Seldom have I heard such beautiful singing.
35. Never shall I forget your kindness.
36. Only then did I see the danger we were in.
37. No sooner had we left the house than it exploded.
38. Not till he got home did he realize that he had lost the key.
39. Not only did they rob you, they smashed everything.
40. Down fell half a dozen apples.
41. Should an emergency arise, dial 999.
42. Were Rex a little more hardworking, he would not have failed.
43. Had Mr Chan been kinder to his employees, his business would not have collapsed.
.       44. I had hardly begun to apologize when the door closed .

Hardly ………………………………………………………………………………….


         45. .        I have seldom heard such a talented singer.

Seldom ………………………………………………………………………………….





  1. If John had known that she liked curry, he would have brought her to an Indian restaurant.

Had ……………………………………………………………………………………..

  1. The artist rarely paid any attention to his agent's advice.

Rarely ……………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. He had never felt so depressed.

Never ……………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. The shop can in no way be held responsible for customers' lost property.

In no way ……………………………………………………………………………………..

  1. The couple had no sooner arrived than the priest started the ceremony.

No sooner …………………………………………………………………………………..

  1. Tom only understood the meaning of the comment when he saw his wife's face.

Only when ………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. She never at any time said that she was allergic to cats.

Never …………………………………………………………………………………………

 53.       The restaurant cannot accept animals under any circumstances.    


  Under no circumstances ………………………………………………………………….

        44.      Hardly had I begun to apologize when the door closed.

        45.      Seldom have I heard such a talented singer.

        46.      Had John known that she liked curry, he would have brought her to an Indian restaurant.

        47.      Rarely did the artist pay attention to his agent's advice.

        48.      Never had he felt so depressed.

        49.      In no way can the shop be held responsible for customers' lost property.

       50.      No sooner had the couple arrived than the priest started the ceremony.

        51.      Only when he saw his wife's face did Tom realize the meaning of the comment.

        52.      Never at any time had she said (that) she was allergic to cats.

       53.     Under no circumstances can the restaurant accept animals.


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