How Does dna determine the Traits of an Organism?



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How Does DNA Determine the Traits of an Organism?

Introduction:

In this simulation, you will examine the mRNA sequence of a fictitious organism - the Snork. Snorks were discovered on the planet Dee Enae in a distant solar system. Snorks only have one chromosome with ten genes on it.

Your Job:

  1. Analyze the genes of four Snork DNA samples and determine what traits the organism has. You must show ALL your work!

  2. Then, sketch the organism (Be creative!).

For simplicity, the gene sequences are much smaller than real gene sequences found in living organisms. Each gene has two versions that result in a different trait being expressed in the Snork.

Genes

Amino Acid Sequence

Description

Gene 1 - body covering

met - val - ser - leu

hairless

 

met - val - ser - lys

hairy

Gene 2 - body style

met - tyr - pro - gln - gln - lys

plump

 

met - val - pro - thr - gln - lys

skinny

Gene 3 - legs

met - leu - leu - leu - pro

3 legged

 

met - leu - leu - ser - ala

2 legged

Gene 4 - head shape

met - ala - val - val

round head

 

met - val - ala - ala

square head

Gene 5 - tails

met - his - ile

tail

 

met - his - his

no tail

Gene 6 - body pigment

met - ser - pro - val

blue pigment (hair/skin)

 

met - val - phe - tyr

red pigment (hair/skin)

Gene 7 - eyes

met - asn - ile - leu - leu - pro - thr

small slanted eyes

 

met - asn - ile - pro - pro - pro - thr

large round eyes

Gene 8 - mouth

met - val - asn - asn - ala

circular mouth

 

met - asn - asn - asn - ala

rectangular mouth

Gene 9 - ears

met - phe - ser - his

pointed standing-up ears

 

met - phe - phe - his

rounded floppy ears

Gene 10 - arms

met - arg - tyr - cys - lys

long spaghetti like arms

 

met - arg - arg - asn - thr

short stumpy arms

Each of the following mRNA samples was taken from volunteer Snorks. Your job is to analyze each sample and determine the phenotype (how the organism looks) based on the sequence. Remember that AUG is a start codon, and it signifies the beginning of each gene. UAA is a stop codon and signifies the end of a gene. The genes are in order from gene 1 to gene 10 and are separated by a vertical line (|).

Snicker Snork

AUG GUC AGC AAA UAA | AUG UAC CCC CAA CAG AAA UAA | AUG CUC UUA AGU GCG UAA | AUG GCU GUU GUG UAA | AUG CAU CAU UAA | AUG GUU UUU UAC UAA | AUG AAU AUC UUA CUG CCC ACC UAA | AUG AAU AAC AAU GCC UAA | AUG UUU UCU CAC UAA | AUG AGA UAU UGU AAA | UAA

Snuffle Snork

AUG GUA UCU AAA UAA | AUG GUU CCU ACU CAA AAG UAA | AUG CUU CUC CUC CCC UAA | AUG GUU GCG GCU UAA | AUG CAU CAC UAA | AUG GUA UUU UAU UAA | AUG AAU AUU CUU CUG CCC ACA UAA | AUG AAU AAU AAU GCA UAA | AUG UUC UCG CAC UAA | AUG AGA AGA AAU ACU UAA

Snapple Snork

AUG GUC AGC AAA UAA | AUG UAC CCC CAA CAG AAA UAA | AUG CUC UUA AGU GCG UAA | AUG GUU GCG GCU UAA | AUG CAC AUU UAA | AUG UCU CCC GUA UAA | AUG AAU AUU CUC CUC CCC ACC UAA | AUG GUU AAU AAU GCA UAA | AUG UUC UUU CAU UAA | AUG AGG UAC UGC AAG UAA

Snoopy Snork

AUG GUA UCC CUC UAA | AUG UAC CCC CAA CAG AAA UAA | AUG UUA UUG CUG CCC UAA | AUG GUG GCA GCU UAA | AUG CAU AUU UAA | AUG UCU CCC GUA UAA | AUG AAC AUU CUU CUG CCC ACA UAA | AUG AAU AAC AAU GCC UAA | AUG UUU UCU CAC UAA | AUG CGU CGC AAC ACA UAA 


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