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IV. Procedure

Period 1

Relative pronouns, relative adverbs, relative clauses

  1. Presentation

  1. Relative pronouns and relative adverbs (10 minutes)

-Teacher presents the use of relative pronouns and relative adverbs

Relative

pronouns

Use

Example

who

Subject/ Object (people)

The man who lives next door is very friendly

He’s the man who I met at Jane’s party.



whom

Object (people)

That’s the woman whom I saw

whose

Possessive ( people/things)

I know the boy whose bike was stolen

John found a cat whose leg was broken



which

Subject/object (things)

That is the bicycle which belongs to Tom

That is the book which I like best



that

Subject/object (people/things)

Anyone that wants to take a good seat should come early.

I don’t like stories that have unhappy endings

The painting that my sister bought is very expensive


Relative adverbs




where

Adverb (place) = in/ on/at which

The hotel where we stayed wasn’t very clean

The hotel at which we stayed wasn’t very clean



when

Adverb (time) = in/on/which

June is the month when many couples get married

June is the month in which many couples get married



why

Adverb (reason) = for which

I don’t know the reason why he has changed his mind

I don’t know the reason for which he has changed his mind



Note:

1. We usually use that (not which) after the following words: all, any(thing), every(thing), few, little, many, much, no(thing), none, some(thing) and after superlatives

It was something that could have happened to anyone.

It was the most difficult exam that I have ever taken

2. If the relative pronoun is followed by a verb, it is a subject pronoun.

The man who is driving this car is Tam’s uncle.

If the relative pronoun is not followed by a verb( but by a noun or a pronoun), it is an object pronoun.



The website that you showed me yesterday is very interesting.

3. When which, that, whom are used as objects in relative clauses, they can be correctly omitted.

He’s the man I met at Jane’s party

That is the book I like best

The painting my sister bought is very expensive

The website you showed me yesterday is very interesting.

B. Practice

    1. Exercise 1 (15 minutes)

  • Teacher gives handouts.

  • Teacher gives instruction: Choose the best option by circling A, B, C or D.

  • Teacher sets the time: 10 minutes

  • Teacher goes round and helps students if necessary.

  • Tell students to compare their answers in pairs in they have finished.

  • Teacher asks students to give answer.

  • Teacher asks students to explain their choice and teacher elicits difficult points.

  • Teacher gives feedback and further explanation if necessary.



  1. The man ________ spoke to John is my brother.

A. whom B. who C. whose D. which

  1. I come from a city _______ is located in the southern part of the country.

A. who B. whom C. that D. whose

  1. I talked to a woman __________ car had broken down on the way to the party.

A. which B. who C. whose D. whom

  1. Tell me the reason ____________ you were absent yesterday.

A. where B. when C. why D. that

  1. What’s the name of the blonde girl ___________has just come in?

A. who B. whose C. whom D. A & B

  1. He’s the man ___________ people like at first sight.

A. who B. whom C. that D. All are correct

  1. The dress __________ she bought last week doesn’t fit her well.

A. whom B. which C. Ø D. B & C

  1. I apologized to the boy ______ book I borrowed.

A. which B. who C. whom D. whose

  1. I am going to visit the town _____ I was born and grew up.

A. where B. which C. when D. who

  1. The ring ______ is made of gold and diamond.

A. she is wearing it B. he gave it to her C. Linda like D. she is wearing

  1. There was a time __________ dinosaurs dominated the earth.

A. which B. when C. that D. A & B

12. This is the painter__________pictures you admire so much.

A.where B. whose C. who D. which

13. The house_______Shakespeare was born is now open to public.

A. whose b. who C. where D. when

14. This is the supermarket __________you can buy almost everything.

A. that B.where C. who D. when

2. Exercise 2 (8 minutes)


  • Teacher gives handouts.

  • Teacher gives instruction: Choose the underlined part that needs correction to be correct.

  • Teacher sets the time: 5 minutes

  • Teacher goes round and helps students if necessary.

  • Teacher asks students to give their answer(s)

  • Teacher asks students to explain their choice.

  • Teacher gives feedback and further explanation if necessary.

1. The New Year Day is the day where all my family members gather and enjoy it together.

A B C D


2. The policeman must try to catch those men whom drive dangerously.

A B C D


3. The man whom helped you yesterday is a television reporter.

A B C D


4. The reason what I didn’t come to visit her was that I was ill.

A B C D


5. She is the most beautiful woman whose I have ever met

A B C D


6. The city who I was born is small but nice.

A B C D


3. Exercise 3: Combine the following sentences using relative pronouns (10 minutes)

  • -Teacher gives an example:

My brother works for a company. It makes typewriters.

→ My brother works for a company which/that makes typewriters.

  • Teacher gives instruction: Combine the following sentences using relative pronouns.

  • Teacher sets the time: 6 minutes

  • Teacher goes round and helps students if necessary.

  • Teacher asks students to give their answer(s)

  • Teacher gives feedback and further explanation if necessary.

1. I was waiting for a man. He didn’t turn up. ( The man…)

2. A girl was injured in the accident. She is now in hospital. (The girl…)

3.We watched a film last night. It was really moving. ( The film….)

4. Romeo and Juliet were lovers. Their parents hated each other

5. Some boys were arrested. They have now been released. (The boys…)

6. Loan is helping a foreigner. The foreigner is from the USA.

7. The bottle was blue. It contained the chemichal

8. I have to do the assignment. It is very difficult. ( The assignment…)



- Answer key

1. The man (who/whom/that/Ø) I was waiting for did not turn up.

2. The girl who was injured in the accident is now in hospital.

3. The film (which/that/Ø) we watched last night was really moving.

4. Romeo and Juliet were lovers whose parents hated each other.

5. The boys who were arrested have now been released.

6. Loan is helping a foreigner who is from the USA.

The foreigner (who/whom/that/Ø) Loan is helping is from the USA.

7. The bottle which contained the chemichal was blue.

8. The assignment (that/ which/Ø) I have to do is very difficult.



C. Homework (2 minutes)

  • - T gives handouts and asks students to do exercise 4, 5 at home.

Esercise 4: Choose the best option by circling the letter A, B, C or D

1. She is the girl ___________ .

A. father is a journalist B. a journalist is her father

C. who a journalist is her father D. whose father is a journalist

2. Do you know the hotel__________ ?

A. at which she is staying B. where she is staying

C. she is staying at D. all are correct

3. Sue lives in a house. The house is opposite my house.

A. Sue lives in a house which is opposite my house.

B. Sue lives in a house who is opposite my house.

C. Sue lives in a house where is opposite my house.

D. Sue lives in a house and which is opposite my house.

4. The table should be repaired. Its legs were broken yesterday.

A. The table which legs were broken yesterday should be repaired

B. The table whose legs were broken yesterday should be repaired.

C. The table of which legs were broken yesterday should be repaired

D. The table legs of whose were broken yesterday should be repaired

5. The restaurant was very modern. We had lunch at the restaurant.

A. The restaurant where we had lunch was very modern.

B. The restaurant which we had lunch was very modern.

C. The restaurant that we had lunch was very modern.

D. The restaurant where we had lunch at was very modern

Exercise 5

1. I enjoyed the book that you told me to read it.

A B C D

2. What is the name of the girl whom has just come in?



A B C D

3. That is the man who he told me the bad news.

A B C D

4. He’s the man that his novel won the Nobel Prize last year



A B C D

5. A person who study science is a scientist

A B C D

6. Have you read the book what I gave you this morning?



A B C D

Period 2: DEFINING AND NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES

I. Correcting homework (8 minutes)

- Teacher asks students to give the answer for exercise 4, 5

- Teacher asks students to explain their choices.

-Teacher gives feedback.



II. New lesson

A. Presentation (10 minutes)

  • Teacher introduces 2 kinds of relative clauses.

1. Identifying and non-identifying relative clauses.

1. Identifying relative clauses.

1. 1. Identifying relative clauses gives information which is essential to the meaning of the sentence. It makes clear which person or thing we are talking about.

The man who lives at number 36 has been arrested

The book that you gave me on my birthday is very interesting



1.2. Cleft sentences: It + be+ noun/ pronoun + identifying relative clauses.

It was Tom who helped us ( not Bill or Jack)

It was Ann that I saw ( not Mary)

With proper noun, that is more usual than who. That is usual for non-personal subjects.



It’s speed that causes accidents, not bad roads.

2. Non- identifying relative clauses gives information which is not essential to the meaning of the sentence.

Non-identifying relative clauses have commas at both ends unless this is also the end of the sentence.

Mr Brown, who lives at number 36, has been arrested.

I’ve invited Linda, who lives in the next flat.

The Hilton hotel, which we stayed at while we were in New York, is expensive.



Note:

a. “that” cannot be used in non-identifying relative clauses.

b. “which” can refer to a whole clause.

He didn’t pass the exam, which surprised all of us.

c. Object pronouns in non-identifying clauses must be used

Nam, who/whom we met yesterday, is my neighbor.

d. In non-identifying relative clauses after numbers, and words like many, most, neither, some, both, several, few, we use of before whom and which.

Her sons, both of whom work abroad, ring her up every week.

I saw several houses, most of which were quite unsuitable.



    1. Relative clause with prepositons

The man who/whom Mary is talking to is Mr Pike.

→ The man to whom Mary is talking is Mr Pike.

The movie they are talking about is very interesting

→The movie about which they are talking is very interesting



Note: Prepositions are normally placed before whom and which.

B. Exercises (25 minutes)

Exercise 1: Choose the best option by circling the letter A, B, C or D. (20 minutes)

  • Teacher gives handouts.

  • Teacher gives instruction: Choose the best option by circling A, B, C or D.

  • Teacher sets the time: 15 minutes

  • Teacher goes round and helps students if necessary.

  • Teacher asks students to give answer

  • Teacher asks students to explain their choice.

  • Teacher gives feedback and further explanation if necessary.



  1. Jan didn't check she had enough petrol before she left, ........was careless of her.

A. what B. it C. that D. which

  1. I must thank the man from _____ I got the present.

A. who B. whom C. that D. which

  1. That ’s the woman to _______ Jim used to be married.

A. who B. whom C. which D. that

  1. The success of shared holidays depends on __________ you shared it with.

A. whose B. who C. whom D. which

  1. Tom made a number of suggestions, most of ____ were very helpful.

A. them B. which C. that D. B & C

  1. The house in ________ I was born and grew up was destroyed in an earthquake ten years ago.

A. which B. where C. that D. All are correct

  1. Do you know the man about ___________ they’re talking?

A. whom B. whose C. that D. A & C

  1. What kind of music to ___________ you are listening?

A. whose B. which C. that D. B & C

  1. This is Mary, ____ is taking over my job when I leave.

A. that B. which C. who D. whom

  1. That is the house in ______I used to live.

A. that B. which C. where D. there

  1. The man _______ is my teacher.

A. who she is speaking to B. whom she is speaking with

C. to whom she is speaking D. to whom she is speaking with



  1. Sunday is the day _______which we usually go fishing.

A. during B. at C. in D. on

  1. She couldn’t answer any question, _______made me surprised.

A. that B. it C. this D. which

  1. The knife ____ we cut bread is very sharp.

A. with that B. which C. with which D. that

  1. It____ Lan _____ always helps him in his trouble.

A. was/ who B. was/ that C. is / who D. is / which

16. The bike __________ is very modern.

A. I told you about which B. about I told you which

C. which about I told you D. about which I told you

17. Last week I met Mr. Lam, ______________.

A. who’s oldest son is studying abroad

B. the oldest son of who is studying abroad

C. whose oldest son is studying abroad

D. of whom the oldest son is studying abroad

18. Is she the lady________________?

A. which you borrow this bike from B. from who you borrow this bike

C. from whom you borrow this book D. from that you borrow this bike



Exercise 2: Combine the following sentences. ( 8 minutes)

  • Teacher gives instruction: Combine the following sentences using relative pronouns.

  • Teacher sets the time: 5 minutes

  • Teacher goes round and helps students if necessary.

  • Teacher asks students to give their answer(s)

  • Teacher gives feedback and further explanation if necessary

1. The man that we are talking about is a famous scientist.

→The man about…………………………………………..

2. The tree that we picked these fruits from is in front of the house.

→The tree from…………………………………………….

3. The city that we were born in is very big.

→The city in…………………………………………………

4. Do you remember the day ? We first met on that day.

→Do you remember the day on……………………………?



    1. This is Rex hotel, and it is the biggest hotel in the city.

→This is the Rex hotel, which……………………………..

6. This is Mrs Johns. Her son won the championship last year.



Answer key

1.The man about whom we are talking is a famous scientist.

2. The tree from which we picked these fruits is in front of the house.

3. The city in which I was born is very big.

4. Do you remember the day on which we first met?

5. This is Rex hotel, which is the biggest hotel in the city.

6. This is Mrs John, whose son won the championship last year.


    1. Homework (2 minutes)

- Teacher asks students to do exercise 3 at home.

Exercise 3: Circle the letter whose underlined part must be changed for the sentence to be correct.

  1. My sister works for a foreign company in Ho Chi Minh City, in where is one of the biggest cities in Vietnam. A B C D

2. Martin tried on three jackets, none of that fitted him.

A B C D


3. Is that the man who house was broken into two days ago?

A B C D


4. Bogota, that is the capital of Colombia, is a cosmopolitan city.

A B C D


5. He is the singer about that I often tell you.

A B C D


Period 3: REDUCED RELATIVE CLAUSES

  1. Correcting homework ( 5 minutes)

  • - Teacher asks students to give the answer for exercise 4,5

  • - Teacher asks students to explain their choice.

  • -Teacher gives feedback.

II. New lesson

  1. Presentation ( 12 minutes)

  1. Relative clauses replaced by present participles.

  • Teacher give some examples:

a.The boy who is talking to Mrs Hoa is my classmate.

→ The boy talking to Mrs Hoa is my classmate.

b. Students who arrive late will not be permitted to enter the classroom.

→ Students arriving late will not be permitted to enter the classroom.



  • - Teacher asks students to comment on the way the above sentences are shortened

*Rule: If the verbs in relative clauses has active meaning, it can be repalced by a present participle.



  1. Relative clauses replaced by past participles.

  • Teacher give some examples:

a. We live in a house which was built a long time ago.

→ We live in a house built a long time ago.

b. The city which was destroyed in the war has now been rebuilt.

→ The city destroyed in the war has now been rebuilt.



  • - Teacher asks students to comment on the way the above sentences are shortened

*Rule: If the verbs in relative clauses has passive meaning, it can be repalced by a past participle.

  1. Relative clauses replaced by infinitives

  • Teacher give some examples:

John was the first person who came to class this morning.

→John was the first person to come to class this morning

The last person who leaves the room must turn off the lights

→The last person to leave the room must turn off the lights

He was the youngest person who came to the meeting

→ He was the youngest person to come to the meeting



  • - Teacher asks students to comment on the way the above sentences are shortened.

*Rule: Relative clauses can be replaced by full infinitive after the first, the second, the last, the only and sometimes after superlatives.

B. Practice

  • Teacher gives instruction: Rewriting the sentences as guided.

  • Teacher sets the time: 18 minutes

  • Teacher goes round and helps students if necessary.

  • Teacher asks students to give their answer(s)

  • Teacher gives feedback and further explanation if necessary.
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