Feb 25, 2011 regional environment assessment report



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Feb 25, 2011

REGIONAL ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT REPORT -

MEKONG DELTA WATER RESOURCES management FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECT



Tháng 3, 2011

Báo cáo đánh giá môi trưỜng vùng

DỰ ÁN QUẢN LÝ THỦY LỢI PHỤC VỤ PHÁT TRIỂN NÔNG THÔN VÙNG ĐỒNG BẰNG SÔNG CỬU LONG






CHƯƠNG 2: MÔIÊU TẢ DỰ ÁNChapterCHAPTER 21: PROJECT DESCRIPTION INTRODUCTION
In general, the Mekong Delta region are facing a number of environmental risks including: (i) salinity intrusion; (ii) acidification of acid sulfatephate-soils; (iii) water pollution (agrochemicals, fertilizers, human wastes) especially in the dry season; (iv) impacts of fishery and shrimp cultivation in terms of mangrove deforestation in coastal zone, (v) forest and natural reserves are being affected by human activities; and (vi) flood.

The impacts of the proposed project on the environment and rural livelihoods are expected to be overall positive. Yet, there is a possibility that there might be short-term adverse environmental impacts as follows: (i) Irrigation rehabilitation by constructing canal, sluices and culverts will possible release the acid in soil, water pollution; (ii) Improvement of existing canal related road networks and bridges will pollute the air, water and soil especially in the construction phase; (iii) the project will increase triple-cropped rice cultivation which is associated with the significant increases in use of agro-chemicals; (iv) transportation logging while sluices and canals are under construction.

To ensure the project not seriously impact to the environment, it is possible to trigger some of environmental safeguard policies such as Environmental Assessment. Complying with these policies, the following safeguard instruments have been prepared: (a) One Regional Environmental Assessment (REA) covering the whole project; (b) One Integrated Pest Management (IPM); (c) One Ethnic Minority Development Framework (EMDF); (d) Site-specific Ethnic Minority Plan (EMPs); (e) One Resettlement Policy Framework (RPF); (f) Site-specific Resettlement Actions Plans (RAPs); and (g) Code of engineering practices on environmental aspects (ECEPs) for all type of civil works.

A regional environment assessment (REA) will be conducted to assess the potential impacts (positive and negative) of the Project in light of the Mekong mainstream development and climate change. In addition, the Integrated Pest Management Program will be prepared to increase awareness of farmers on the safe handling and management of agro-chemicals and to reduce application rates of pesticides and herbicides.



    1. OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE OF REA

      1. Objectives

The REA is made to comply with regulations of the Government and WB safeguard polices. Some of environmental safeguard instruments will possibly be triggered such as: Environmental Management Framework which covers the environment regulation of both World Bank and Vietnam, implementation arrangement and responsibilities, consultation and information disclosures. The separate EIA/EMP report could be prepared by the borrower in accordance with WB and VN environmental safeguard. The World Bank (WB) has categorized the Project as a ‘Category B’ project and out of the ten safeguard policies, five policies are triggered: Environmental Assessment (OP 4.01); Pest Management (OP 4.09); Indigenous Peoples (OP 4.10); Involuntary Resettlement (OP 4.12); and International waterways (OP7.50).

Otherwise, main purpose of the EA is to identify potential impacts of the Project to ensure that potential negative impacts are adequately mitigated to an acceptable level and that an opportunity to enhance the potential positive impacts is integrated in the project design. Assessment of the potential impacts (positive and negative) of and/or to the project and identification of the proposed measures to mitigate and/or compensate for negative impacts as well as those for enhancing the project benefits will be made based on professional judgment and stakeholder consultations which will be carried out during the data collection stage and preparation of the final draft documents.

Project activities will be conducted mostly within the existing flood protection areas the negative impacts on natural habitats and national protected areas are unlikely. Most of the negative impacts on local environment would likely to be limited to dredging and spoil management, water quality, and increasing use of chemicals due to increased intensity of agricultural production. Mitigating these impacts will be made using ECEPS and strict supervision and monitoring of contractor performance by the implementing agencies as well as a combination of farmer’s knowledge and practical actions.

REA is implemented given a chance to community to take part in the Project. Stakeholders concerned in this Project are (i) farmers, (ii) local governments, (iii) technical agencies and (iv) businesses. To make sure effective collaboration among project stakeholders takes place, two meetings of publication consultation will be conducted to ensure that the project is designed, taking into account each stakeholder’s background, interest to avoid possible obstacles that have take places in other projects in Vietnam. Target project beneficiaries, including farmers and affected peoples, will be interviewed thoroughly in field survey to make sure the voices are heard at the very first steps of project preparation, which pave the way for participation in project activities as well as participatory monitoring and evaluation.



      1. Scope of REA

In this context, the REA will be made for the following issues: (a) practices of chemicals uses and non-chemical uses in agriculture production, especially for rice cultivation, vegetable production, fruit trees, shrimp farming, fishes and other aquatic farming; (b) IPM practices; and (c) soil quality and/or water quality in hot spots.

The content of REA as follows: (i) General assessment of the Project area; (ii) Assessment on potential impact and mitigation measures for negative impacts caused by the Project; (ii) EMP and (iv) Public consultations



      1. Tasks of REA and methodology

Task 1. Mekong Delta profile/baseline –review of secondary data

    Review the existing documents and data related to the environment conditions in the 6 provinces and a city. Specific conditions include: (i) existing land use; (ii) locations of protected areas, forest/mangrove/natural habitats, and cultural heritage sites; (iii) acid sulfate soil/saline soil distribution; (iv) salinity intrusion pattern, (v) flood control, irrigation, and aquaculture activities; (vi) surface water quality and locations of important pollution sources; (vii) groundwater quality; (viii) agriculture activities and application of fertilizers and other chemicals, and other environmental issues in the area.

Task 2. Project area profile/baseline –primary data collection

    At Project area level and/or site specific level, collect primary data on ago-chemical uses and water quality to acquire more in dept knowledge on priority issues related to water uses and water pollution in specific Project areas and/or sites.

Task 3. Assessment of project impacts

    Based on the background conditions, specific analysis of data, and the proposed subproject activities, assess overall environment (both negative and positives) anticipated by the Project in a cumulative way and identification of appropriate measures to avoid, prevent, and if not avoidable to mitigate the negative impacts. The assessment is made in the regional (Mekong Delta) context as well as Project area context, and site specific context (as needed). At the regional level, the assessment focus on potential impact on hydrology and ecosystems, especially those related to critical natural habitats due to the project activities as well as other development activities that might affect the area (such as population growth, government policy, upstream development, and climate change). At Project area level, the assessment is made based on the nature and activities to be carried out for each specific site. For the subproject that involves irrigation, the consultants assess the level of fertilizer, pesticides, and related chemicals usages as well as the positive and negative impacts.

Task 4. Assessment of climate change impacts

    The Consultant carries out an analysis on environmental vulnerabilities and climate change risks that include the climate change projections and scenarios. Efforts also are made to assess possible cumulative impacts of the Project as well as other development activities and Mekong upstream development.

Task 5 Mitigation measures

If the negative impacts are anticipated the Consultants propose appropriate measures to avoid, prevent, and/or mitigate them, including identification of responsible agencies and estimated budget. If the impacts on natural habitats are expected, appropriate measures must be included.



For the first year 5 subprojects and site specific EA and EMP, provide technical guidance to ensure that (a) the EMPs are prepared in accordance with the Government’s regulations relating to environmental impacts assessment as well as with the WB policies on environmental assessment and (b) adequate budget is estimated and allocated. The Consultant will also study the WB technical guideline for preparation of EA and EMP, IPMP.

For the subprojects to be implemented in the second year forward, prepare an ESMF for mitigating the regional and/or cumulative impacts (if any) given due consideration to mitigate those anticipated at the subproject and site specific level. Objectives and scope of the ESMF include to: (i) compliance with the Government’s regulations relating to environmental impacts assessment as well as with the WB policies on environmental assessment; (ii) mitigating the potential negative impacts due to civil works; (iii) mitigating the potential negative impacts during operation phase, and (iv) when possible enhancing environment and social benefits.

Task 6. Enhancement measures

To proactively address the climate change impacts, to improve effectiveness and sustainability of agriculture production, to improve farmers and public health; and to promote poverty reduction during the implementation of the Project through public consultation meeting, the Consultant explored an opportunity to: (a) Increase knowledge and awareness on climate change impact to local authority and local people and encourage them to take proactive actions to address the issues; (b) Prepare a plan to promote good practices in agriculture production such as scale up the shrimp-rice farming practice, application of good practices for shrimp farming, application of organic farming, etc. Key activities may include action research, water quality monitoring and/or soil quality analysis, study visits, workshops, etc.; (c) Prepare a plan to conduct an action research on coastal protection, and (e) Prepare a strategy and action plan to improve sanitation practices in the service areas.



Task 7 Consultation with stakeholders

Consultation with the Project Affected Population (PAPs), the local authorities, and other key stakeholders are critical for successful planning and implementation of the Project and a WB’s guidance note on “Consultations in Investment Lending, March 2010” has been applied to WB financing project. The guideline specifically describes the process of consultations (who needs to be consulted, the preferred modes of consultations in different settings, their timing and venue, documentation and dissemination of the results, and their links to the project design and implementation); roles and responsibility of the Bank in the consultation process; steps of consultations at each steps of the project cycle; and operational policy on specific issues and actions.

The Consultant review the WB guideline in close coordination with CPO and the subproject owner to ensure that acceptable consultations are carried out during the preparation of the ESMF, RPF, EMPF and site specific EMP, RAP, and EMDP.

Task 8. Implementation arrangement and budget allocation

The Consultant review the institutional aspect for implementation of safeguard measures, including assessment capacity (knowledge and budget) of the agencies responsible for implementation of safeguard measure during planning, construction, and operation. If inadequate, prepare a short term and long term plan and budget to improve technical and management capacity.

To ensure compliance with the WB policies on involuntary resettlement and indigenous peoples, adequate budget will be allocated for safeguard training as well as facilitate a meaningful monitoring and evaluation, including monitoring by an independent party. The Consultant prepares a plan and estimate budget for the activities.


      1. Key outputs

For the environmental study, the Consultant submit to CPO and WB the outputs as follows: (i) Environmental assessment report (EA); (ii) Integrated Pest Management Plan; and (iii) Environmental Management Framework (EMF), including ECEPs.


    1. ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT LEGAL AND REGULATION

1.2.1. Government of Vietnam’s laws/regulations/standards

Regarding environmental protection, the Parliament of Vietnam has promulgated the Law on Environment Protection (LEP No 52/2005/QH11), that was enacted with its implementation decree in 2006 (Decree No. 80/2006/ND-CP to instruct the execution of some provisions of LEP and Decree No. 81/2006/ND-CP on August 9th 2006 by the Government of Vietnam on administrative penalization in environmental protection). The LEP identifies the responsibilities of the state center, provinces, organizations and individuals to prevent and remedy environmental deterioration and pollution and carry out specified environmental protection functions and requires the development of environmental standards and submission of environmental impact assessment reports on new and existing facilities. It also requires the responsible parties to pay compensation for environmental damage; establishes the right of individuals and organizations to petition for enforcement of environmental regulations; and calls for civil and criminal penalties for violations.

Specific regulations related to environmental impact assessment (EIA) are Decree No. 21/2008/ND-CP. Decision No 13/2006/QD-BTNMT on September 8th 2006 by Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment guiding on Board of EIA, SEIA Appraisal activities. Based on Decree 91/2002/ND-CP dated November 11, 2002 to regulate function, responsibility, right and organization structure of Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE), it has promulgated Circular No. 05/2008/TT-BTNMT to instruct the strategic environmental assessment, environmental impact assessment and environmental commitment, which replaced Circular No. 08/2006/TT-BTNMT on September 8th 2006. Therefore, the regional environment assessment for the Project is strictly complied with those.

In accordance with Decree 21, MoNRE will be responsible for appraising and reporting to the Prime Minister for EIAs in 7 specified groups (national parks, nature reserves, recognized cultural and historical sites, lands belonging to at least two localities, projects to build permanent bridges equal or greater than 1,000m in length, and concerning hydroelectric plants with capacities of 100 cubic meters or more).

DoNREs will be responsible for appraising and reporting to the relevant Provincial Peoples Committees (PPCs) for EIAs in all other areas. Technical guidelines on specialized EIA: According to LEP 2005, there are 10 specialized EIA guidelines for hydropower; thermal power, urban planning, industrial zone planning; road traffic, rock exploitation, cement, brewery, textile and dying, and offshore petrol exploitation.

Regarding construction, the Vietnamese parliament and Government promulgated the Law on Construction No. 16/2003/QH11 and some decrees such as the Decree No.12/2009/ND-CP dated 10th February 2009 on managing construction and investment projects and Decree No. 209/2004/ND-CP dated 16th December 2004 on managing the quality of construction projects. About planning, land acquisition and resettlement, the parliament and government of Vietnam promulgated laws, decrees and circulars as follows:



  • Law on Land No.13/2003/QH11 dated 26th November 2003 instead of the laws promulgated in 1987 and 1993;

  • Decree No. 181/2004/ND-CP on instruction on executing the Land law 2003;

  • Decree No. 197/2004/ND-CP on compensation, support and resettlement when the State acquires land;

  • Decree No. 17/2006/ND-CP on adjustment to some articles of the decree No. 181/2004/ND-CP and the Decree No. 197/2004/ND-CP;

  • Circular No. 116/2004/TT-BTC on instruction on executing the Decree No.197/2004/ND-CP;

  • Decree No. 188/2004/ND-CP on method of land price determination and price frame of land types;

Besides, the following laws and regulations are based to prepare the environmental assessment report, including:

  • Law on Forest Development and Protection No. 29/2004/QH11;

  • Law on Labor 2002;

  • Law on People’s Health Protection;

  • Law on Cultural Heritage No. 28/2001/QH10;

  • Law on Water Resources No. 8/1998/QH10;

  • Decision No. 22/2006/QD-BTNMT issued by the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment dated 18th December 2006 on strictly applying environmental standards.




  • In terms of environmental standards, the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (now are Ministry of Science and Technology and Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment) is responsible for promulgating the environmental standard sets. The following environmental standards of Vietnam will be strictly adhered to carry out the environmental assessment study, including:









QCVN 03:2008/BTNMT – National technical regulation on the allowable limits of heavy metals in the soils;

QCVN 05: National Technical Regulation on ambient air quality;

QCVN 06: National Technical Regulation on hazardous substances in ambient air;

QCVN 08:2008/BTNMT: National technical regulation on Surface water quality.

QCVN 09:2008/BTNMT: National technical regulation on Ground water quality.

QCVN 10:2008/BTNMT: National technical regulation on Coastal water quality.

QCVN 11:2008/BTNMT: National technical regulation on Industrial wastewater quality.

QCVN 14:2008/BTNMT: National technical regulation on sewage water quality.



  • QCVN 15:2008/BTNMT: National technical regulation on pesticide existance in soil.

  • TCVN 5945:2005 - Industrial wastewater: Discharge standards;

  • TCVN 5937:2005 - Ambient air quality standards; and

  • TCVN 6962:2001 - Vibration emitted by construction works and factories - Maximum permitted levels in the environment of public and residential areas;

  • TCVN 6438:2001 - Road vehicles - Maximum permitted emission limits of exhaust.

  • TCVN 5949:1998 - Noise in public and residential areas - Maximum permitted noise level;

  • TCVN 5948-1998: Acoustics - Noise-road vehicles emitted when the speed - the maximum permitted noise level;

  • TCVN 5525:1995 - General requirements for protection of groundwater;

  • TCVN 5576:1991 - Water supply and drainage systems - Rules for technical management;

Concerning the quality of drinking water, the Ministry of Health issued Circulars No.04/2009/TT-BYT dated 17th June 2009 and No.05/2009/TT-BYT dated 17th June 2009 on National technical regulation on drinking water.

Moreover, regarding planning and design of infrastructure, operation and management of the water supply systems, and water source option to serve domestic water supply systems the following standards are used:


  • Decision No.628/BXD-CSXD of the Ministry of Construction (MOC) dated 14th December 1996: Vietnamese Construction Regulations and Standards;

  • Design standards No. 20TCN-33-85 for water supply projects;

  • Instructions for preparation and approval of town construction planning of MOC in 1998;

  • Construction standard TCXD No.66:1991 on Operation of water supply and drainage systems - Safety requirements;

  • Construction standard TCXD No. 76:1979 on Procedures for technical management in operation of water supply systems; and

  • Construction standard TCXD No.233:1999 on criteria used for choosing surface water, groundwater sources to serve domestic water supply system.


1.2.2. World Bank requirements

All requirements of the World Bank in relation to the environmental domain are stated in the Safeguard policies such as OP 4.01 and OP 4.09 on the environmental assessment and BP 17.50 on information disclosure.

According to the World Bank guidelines, the project is considered as the Class B project i.e. the environmental impacts of the project is to be site-specific, local level and mostly beneficial. The project activities are expected to cause only local, short-term and temporary environmental impacts, which can be mitigated. To be in line with the WB safeguard policies on environmental assessment (EA) (OP/BP 4.01), pest management (OP 4.09), involuntary resettlement (OP/BP 4.11), and ethnic minority (equivalent to indigenous peoples of WB policy OP/BP 4.10), preparation of site specific mitigation plans conventionally called Environmental Management Plan (EMP), Integrated Pest Management (IPM), Resettlement Action Plan (RAP), and Ethnic Minority Development Plan (EMDP) will be required and a separate study will be carried out to prepare site specific EMPs, RAPs, and EMDPs for the 5 subprojects proposed for implementation in the first year.

Chapter 2. PROJECT DESCRIPTION




    1. MỤC TIÊU CỦA DỰ ÁN

Dự án được thiết kế nhằm thực hiện các mục tiêu sau: (i) Giảm thiểu các rủi ro liên quan đến nguồn nước cho các hộ nông dân như lũ lụt, xói mòn, thiếu nước sạch, dẫn đến tác động bất lợi đối với cơ cấu mùa vụ và phát triển bền vứng; (ii) Duy trì nâng cao năng suất nông nghiệp và thủy sản; (iii) Tăng khả năng tiếp cận nước sạch cho 300.000 hộ gia đình, góp phần cải thiện điều kiện sống của người dân địa phương; (iv) Thức đẩy giao thông đường bộ và giao thông thủy bằng việc nâng cấp và cải tạo một số kênh, đường giao thông góp phần giảm thiểu chi phí và thời gian vận chuyển nông sản và các loại hàng hóa khác; (v) cải thiện môi trường; (vi) Nâng cao năng lực giám sát chất lượng nước (đặc biệt là giám sát nước biển) và chia sẻ kết quả giám sát cho các bên liên quan; và (vii) quản lý hiệu quả và chí phí thấp đối với cơ sở hạ tầng thủy lợi

Dự án sẽ giúp tăng cường nâng cao sản lượng nông nghiệp, chất lượng cuộc sống và nhanh chóng thích ứng với biến đổi khí hậu. Kết quả của dự án sẽ:



    • Duy trì/nâng cao sản lượng nông thủy sản, cải thiện hiệu quả và tính sẵn có của nước cho 120.000ha;

    • Nâng cao hiệu quả hoạt động của người dân địa phương qua việc nạo vét/cải tạo kênh và đầu tư cầu đường nội đồng;

    • Giảm thiệt hại do tác động tiềm tàng của xâm nhập mặn đối với sản xuất nông nghiệp;

    • Tăng cường tiếp cận nước sạch an toàn cho khoảng 100.000 hộ gia đình;

    • Tăng cường năng lực để giám sát chất lượng nước (đặc biệt là xâm nhập mặn) và thông tin tốt hơn về kết quá giám sát tới các bên liên quan khác nhau; và

    • Quản lý các cơ sở hạ tầng thuỷ lợi có hiệu quả hơn.

The project has been designed to achieve the following: (i) Reducing risk related to water resource for farmer households such as flood, erosion, lack of fresh water, leading to adverse impact on crop structure and damage to sustainable development; (ii) Maintainance and improvement of agricultural production and aquaculture; (iii) Increasing accessible to clean water for 300,000 households, contribution to improvement of living conditions of local people; (iv) Improvement of road and waterway transportation by rehabilitation and improvement of some canals and rural roads, leading to reduction of cost and time for transporting agricultural products and other goods; (v) Improvement of environment; (vi) Strengthening capacity of monitoring on water quality (especially controlling sea water) and sharing monitoring results for relating sides in better manner; and (vii) Management of water resource infrastructure with effectiveness and low cost.

The project will help sustaining gains in agricultural productivity, raise living standards, and accelerate climate change adaptation. The following outcomes would be as follows:



    • Maintained/improved agricultural/aquacultural productivity attributable to improved efficiency and availability of the water for 120,000 hectares;

    • Improve mobility of local people through canal rehabilitation/dredging and investments in farm access roads and bridges;

    • Reduced risk for the potential damages on the agricultural production resulting from salinity intrusion

    • Improved access to safe potable water for about 100,000 households;

    • Strengthened capacity to monitor water quality (particularly salinity intrusion) and better communication of the monitoring results to varied stakeholders; and

    • More cost effective management of water resources infrastructure.


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