Eall 310 Outline for October 12, 2006 Last Time



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EALL 310 Outline for October 12, 2006
Last Time

  • Japanese historical background: Initial language influence in 5th and 6th centuries (through Korea, through study in China, and through sea trade); Continued contact through tribute relationship, trade, and some acceptance of Chinese elite culture (literature, art, religion, rime dictionaries), but there was little migration of Chinese into Japan, and Japanese in many ways developed their own indigenous cultural system while adapting Chinese elements.

  • Power of Writing in Language Contact: artistic value, representation of religion and philosophy, symbol of knowledge, cultural status symbol, political strength (legitimacy in power)

  • Japanese linguistic background: Linguistic isolate, polysyllabic, non-tonal, SOV

  • Sino-Japanese Writing: Go-on (Pre-Tang era), Kan-on (Tang dynasty), and Too-on (Song dynasty) readings (compare with SV); Chinese writing for (1) sound and meaning, (2) sound only, and (3) meaning only; Sound-based characters (manyoogana) develop into Kana syllabaries (Hiragana and Katakana)


More on History of Contact

  • Art: Bronze mirrors, painting

  • Names: Use of Kanji (some native Japanese (kun’yomi), some Chinese (on’yomi)); Some terms of address (先生 sensei “Mr. (professional)” and –kun 君 (used respectfully by elders of younger persons))

  • Systems of measurement: numbers, time, calendars, measure words


Typology of Written Scripts

  • Alphabet: Vietnamese Quốc Ngữ (国语) is an alphabet (featural only in tones). Korean Hangul한글is an alphabet (and featural) 추석 / 秋夕 “Mid-Autumn Festival” chuseok.

  • Logographic system: Chinese writing is a logographic system 中国 zhōng gúo. Each syllable represents a single meaning and a single syllable.

  • Syllabary: Japanese Hiragana and Katakana (collectively, Kana) are syllabaries かみ “paper” kami 紙. Each character represent one syllable of sound, not meaning.


Phonetic Characteristics of Sino-Japanese

  • Non-entering tone/Non-rusheng words: (1) Original Chinese final -m/-ng lost but with long-final vowel in Sino-Japanese (tookyoo “Tokyo” 东京 dong1 jing1), (2) Original Chinese final -n kept

  • Contour tones: All are lost in Sino-Japanese.

  • Entering tone/Rusheng in Sino-Japanese: (1) Sino-Japanese words with original Chinese -p/-t/-k have extra syllables


Kanji in Japanese

  • Chinese as a foreign language

  • Chinese characters to represent Japanese meanings regardless of Chinese sounds (鱼 “fish” sakana)

  • Chinese characters to represent Japanese sounds regardless of Chinese meaning (e.g., manyoogana)

  • Kana syllabaries (sound only, no meaning, not Chinese based)

  • Japanese characters constructed from Chinese but not used in Chinese xx


Some Comparisons with Vietnamese

  • Chinese characters as Chinese (e.g., 婆 bà ‘grandmother’)

  • Chinese characters to represent Vietnamese sounds, regardless of meaning (e.g., 意 ấy “that (Vietnamese)” but “meaning (Chinese)”).

  • Chinese characters to represent Vietnamese meaning, regardless of sound (椅OSV ghế “chair” SV )

  • Nôm creations (e.g., 年 nián (SV: niên) “year” +南 “south” nam = năm “year”)


Sample Japanese Name

山田 太郎


Yamada Taroo

SURNAME GIVEN NAME


Sino-Japanese Doublets (and Triplets)

Kanji

Meaning

Go-on

Kan-on

Tō-on



bright

myō

mei

(min)



go

gyō



(an)



extreme

goku

kyoku

-


Sino-Vietnamese Doublets

Meaning

Chinese

Old SV

SV

VSV

disorder



lộn

loạn

loàn

grave/tomb



mả

mộ

mồ

kneel



cúi

quị

quì


Japanese Language Sample

猫  は 魚 を 食べる。



neko wa sakana o taberu

Cats TOPIC fish OBJECT eat

Cats eat fish.
畏まりました

かしこまりました


kashikomarimashita

“All right.”


Word Order of Possessives

My camera” (cf. “camera of mine”)



Japanese

Chinese

Vietnamese

Watashi no kamera

wo3 de zhao4xiang4ji1

máy chụp hình của tôi

I POSS camera

I POSS camera

camera POSS I


Word Order of Plural Nouns

"four apples"



Japanese

Chinese

Vietnamese

リンゴ 四個

四 个/ 苹果

bốn quả 果 /trái táo

ringo yonko

sì ge píngguǒ

NA

apple four-UNIT

four UNIT apple

four UNIT apple


Sino-Japanese Numerals, Time Words, and Measure Words

  • Native vocabulary (only 1 to 10 and with some special measure words)

  • Sino-Japanese vocabulary (1 to 10 for some things (e.g., time, ), 11+ for all else)


Sino-Japanese Numerals

(1-10, 100, 1,000, and 10,000 with compounds)



English

Kanji

Japanese

Cantonese

1



Ichi

Yāt

2



Ni

Yih

3



San

Sāām

10



Juu

Sahp

12

十二

Juuni

Sahpyih

20

二十

Nihjuu

Yihsahp

23

二十三

Nihjuusan

Yihsahpsāām

100

一百

Hyaku

Sāāmsahp

300

三百

Sanhyaku

Sāāmbaahk

1,000

一千

Sen

Yātchin

3,000

三千

Sansen

Sāāmchin

10,000

一万

Ichiman

Yātchin

30,000

三万

Sanman

Sāāmchin

100,000,000

一艺/億

Itioku / Ichioku

Yātyihk


Sino-Japanese Time Words

English

Kanji

Japanese

Cantonese

Sino-Vietnamese

minute



pun

fān

phân

hour

(小) 时

ji

(síu) sìh

thì (giờ)

day



nichi

yaht

nhật (ngày)

week



Shuu/syuu

jāau

(tuần lễ)

month



gatsu

yuht

nguyệt (thắng)

year



nen

nìhn

niên (năm)


Measure Words of Chinese Origin in Japanese, Chinese, and Vietnamese

Character

Jap.

Chin.

Viet.

Use



bu



bộ

A work of something



dai

dài

đại

Generations, periods, reigns



dai

tái

xx

Cars, machines, mechanical devices

段落

danraku

duàn

đoạn

Paragraphs



do



độ

Occurrences, number of times, degrees Celsius (see also: kai)



fun

fēn

phân

Minutes



ho, po



bộ

Footsteps

/课

ka



xx

Chapters of a book



kai

húi

xx

Occurrences, number of times (see also: do)



ken

jiàn

kiến

Abstract matters and cases

,,,

ko



cái

General measure word, used when there is no specific counter.



mei

míng

xx

People (polite) (名 means "name")



men

miàn

xx

Mirrors

/岁

sai

sùi

tuổi (tuế)

Years of age

/种

shurui or shu

zhng

xx (loại)

Various types of things



ten

din

điểm

Points, dots

/头



tóu

xx

Large animals, cattle, elephants (頭 means "head")



wa



xx

Bundles


Phonetic considerations

Issue

Japanese

Middle Chinese

Vietnamese

Word structure

Polysyllabic

Monosyllabic

Monosyllabic

Word formation

Agglutinative; compounding; complex verb structure

Isolating; compounding; simple verb structure

Isolating; compounding; simple verb structure

Syllable structure

CV (Native); CV(C) (Sino-Japanese (ichi) rusheng)

CVC

CVC

Suprasegmental features

Non-tonal, pitch accent

Tonal

Tonal

Syntax (sentence)

SOV

SVO

SVO

Syntax (case)

Post-position particles (-o for objects, -wa for topics, -ga for subjects, etc.)

None

None

Possession

Possessor+Noun

Possessor+Noun

Noun+Possessor

Counted Nouns

Noun+Number+Measure

Number+Measure+ Noun

Number+Measure+ Noun








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