Conditional sentences



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CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

1. Điều kiện loại 1 :

IF CLAUSE (Mệnh đề If)


MAIN CLAUSE (Mệnh đề chính)

Simple Present


S + V[-e/es]

S + don’t / doesn’t + V(inf)



Simple Future

S + will + V(inf)

S + will not + V(inf)

Will + S + V(inf)…?



Unless = if…….not

Unless you study hard , you will fail the exam.,= If you don’t study hard , you will fail the exam.

- Sau mệnh đề If hoặc mệnh đề Unless phải có dấu phẩy (,)

- Sau Unless không được dùng dạng phủ định (Ví dụ : không được viết Unless you don’t write)

2. Điều kiện loại 2, loại 3 :

TYPE

IF CLAUSE (Mệnh đề If)


MAIN CLAUSE (Mệnh đề chính)

II

Simple Past

Be  were (was)


S + V-ed/2

S + didn’t + V(inf)


S + would / could + V(inf)

S + wouldn’t / couldn’t +V(inf)

Would / Could + S + V(inf)… ?

III

Past Perfect


S + had + V-ed/Vpp

S + hadn’t + V-ed/Vpp



S + would / could have + V-ed/3

S + wouldn’t / couldn’t have + V-ed/3

Would / Could + S + have + V-ed/3…?

Điều kiện loại 2 : diễn tả một sự việc không có thật ở hiện tại

Điều kiện loại 3 : diễn tả một sự việc không có thật ở quá khứ

3. Những trường hợp khác:

a. Đảo ngữ của câu điều kiện loại 2:

- Bỏ If

- Đưa "Were" ra trước chủ ngữ

Eg: If I were you , I would eat less. => Were I you, I would eat less.

Nếu trong câu không có động từ “were” thì mượn “were’ và dùng “ to V”

If I learnt Russian, I would read a Russian book.

 Were I to learn Russian, I would read a Russian book. If they lived in

b. Câu điều kiện pha trộn: Loại III + Loại II

Eg: He isn't a rich man now because he didn't take my advice.

→If he had taken my advice, he would be a rich man now.



c. Đảo ngữ của câu điều kiện loại 3:

- Bỏ If Had + S (not) + P.P

If it had rained yesterday, we would have stayed at home.

Had it rained yesterday, we would have stayed at home.

Eg : If I hadn't been careful, I would have had an accident last night.

=>Had I not been careful, I would have had an accident last night.



d. But for + điều kiện loại II, III

But for: nếu không có…

- You help me everyday so I can finish my work.

But for your daily help, I couldn’t finish my work.

- She encouraged him and he succeeded.

But for her encouragement, he wouldn’t have succeeded.

- The teacher explained and we understood.

But for the teacher’s explanation, we wouldn’t have understood.

* Ngoài liên từ “if” ra, câu điều kiện còn được bắt đầu bằng các lien từ khác: :

suppose , supposing that , on the condition that , (với điều kiện là), as ong as, so long as, provided that ( miễn là), in case (trong trường hợp) , even if ( ngay cho là)...

- As long as you return the book by Saturday, I will lend it to you with pleasure.



EXERCISE 1 :Choose the best answer for each of the following sentences

  1. If I ……….a lot of money now, I …………..a new car.

a. have /will buy b. have / would buy c. had/ will buy d. had/ would buy.

  1. If I ……………you, I …………….do that.

a. am/ will b. were /would c. were/ will d. had been/ would.

  1. If I were offered the job, I think I ………. it.

a. take b. will take c. would take d. would have taken.

  1. I would be very surprised if he……………..

a. refuses b. refused c. had refused d. would refuse.

  1. 6. If she sold her car, she ………… much money.

a. gets b. would get c. will get d. would have got.

  1. If I had known you were in hospital, I …………to see you.

a. will go b. would go c. went d. would have gone.

  1. If I …………him, I would have said hello to him.

a. had seen b. see c. saw d. would see

  1. I…………..out if I hadn’t been so tired.

a. will go b. went c. would have gone d. would go

  1. If I ………..a camera, I would have taken some pictures.

a. have b. had c. would have d. had had

  1. You won’t pass the examination……………you study more.

a. as long as b. unless c. if d. whether

Bài tập 2: Chia động từ trong ngoặc

1. If it had not rained, we (go) ­­­­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­camping.

2. If he (speak) ­­­ more slowly, I could have understood him.

3. What you (do) if you were a mokey?

4. If he had listened carefully, he (perform) well in his examination.

5. If I find your book, I (give) it to you.

6. If you came with us, you (have) a good time.

7. If I (not/miss) the bus, I could have come early.

8. If I took a trip this summer, I (go) to DatLat.

9. If he (not/steal) the wallet, he (not/be) in prison now.

10. If they (invite) yesterday, I (be) is a good day tomorrow.

11. We (go) swimming if it (be) a good day tomorrow.

12. If the weather (be) nice last day, I (go) for a walk.

13. My dog always barks if he (hear) anything unusual.

14. If he (not/ do) come soon, I'm not going to wait.

15. If the phone (ring) , can you answer it?

16. If it rains this evening, I (not/will) go out.

17. If we had had enough money, we (buy) that house.




Exercise 3: Viết lại câu theo gợi ý

1. I didn’t eat lunch, I feel hungry now.

If I………………………………….

2. If it hadn’t rained, we would have a better crop.

But for………………………………………

3. If you want my advice, I wouldn’t buy it.

If I ………………………………………

4. I only come if they invite me.

Unless……………………….

5. He didn’t revise all his lessons, he failed the exam.

If he………………………………………………

6. His sister sent her money, so he continued to study.

But for…………………………………………

7. The park is over there, only 5 minutes’ walk.

If you walk……………………………….

8. In case it rains, we’ll stay at home

If it……………………………..

9. I'll buy a new hat. I'll give it to you.

If .

10. Today isn't Sunnday. The pupils can't go swimming.

If .

11. He wasn't here. He didn't have a lot of fun.

If .

12. My brother will have enough money. He will buy a bicycle.

If .

13. He didn't have time. He didn't read this novel.

If .

14. Because she missed the bus, she was late.

If .

15. Peter doesn't study hard, so he can't get good marks.

If .

16. My sister is absent from her class because she has a terrible headache.

If .

17. Windy didn't come, so we cancelled the meeting.

If .

18. He was angry, so he didn't say anything.



If .


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