Commerce department international trade



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The Cost of Capital

The cost of capital must also be considered: let's take an example. Patel is charging $9,000 for 30 chairs. Perhaps $1,000 of this is expected profit—the remaining $8,000 are his costs. In his own country, Patel is paid within thirty days, so, assuming he pays his own suppliers and his workforce on time, he has a debt of $8,000 for about a month. At 15% annual interest, that will cost him about $100. If he has to wait three months for payment, his debt will cost him $300. Higher interest rates (in some countries banks charge 45%) and longer waiting periods will quickly wipe out his expected profit.


Precise calculations are often difficult: correct allocation of overhead or an accurate allowance for the cost of delay in payment depend on reliable business data and considerable management expertise. Let's assume, though, that reliable data is available to the exporter. A sober review of the facts then indicates whether exporting is likely to be profitable or not. If not, then—like all bad deals—exporting should be avoided.
What then is the "loaded" market? In practice very few markets offer the free and stable conditions we have just discussed—in most markets factors beyond supply and demand, cost and profit influence price. These distortions are of two main types: promotional and macroeconomic.
Promotional Loading

In order to promote a product in a new market exporters often slash prices: to gain a foothold in the market, the exporter decides to trade— for a short while- at a loss. The exporter assesses first what price will be attractive in the export market and then offers the goods at that price—whether it creates a profit or not.

_________________________________________

See Chapter 3, Section 1 for a detailed example.



Macroeconomic Loading

In developing countries, pricing is sometimes distorted by an urgent need to earn foreign currency: if the price is to be paid in foreign currency, the exporter offers goods at unrealisiically low prices.

Export incentive schemes also influence pricing: exporters sometimes decide to sell accost price (or below) and to take the incentive paid by their own government as their "profit." Such distorted pricing is dictated more by economic than by purely commercial considerations.

Many factors influence export pricing. To keep things simple, however, when this book speaks of "price"; it means the free-market price.


The major problem of export pricing is now apparent: the additional costs, if correctly calculated, often increase the exporter's price until he is not competitive in any foreign market. For many would-be exporters the crucial question is always—will I make a profit from exporting? Only careful calculation can answer that question—and the manufacturer must be wary of entering a legally binding agreement until the answer is clear.

Let us return, then, to Office Enterprises and the export of the chairs. Assume that Patel is conducting his business wisely, in other words:


•He can produce the chairs without problems of quality or quality:

•He has access to effective transportation:

•He is calculating his price on the "free and stable" model.
Will he make a profit? It seems likely. Now he must consider the risks of doing export business and find a means of coping with them.
CASE STUDY: A Good Deal?

Study the scenario below, and then answer the questions. If your answer is "No” give your reasons.


In July 1992, Joe Anderson started a company in Verbena to manufacture foot balls. His workshop has the capacity to make 500 footballs a week working one eight-hour shift five days a week. At present (May 2010) he is selling 1,200 footballs a week on the Verbenan market. Because of the overtime shifts necessary and because of problems with the supply of leather quality is unreliable about 100 balls a week are returned to the factory. Anderson replaces these returned balls, immediately and without question. Anderson’s price structure (in Verbena dollars) is:

Cost of labor and materials per ball $3

Cost of running the business per week $1,200.00

Selling price per ball (no discounts) $4.25

Anderson is now approached by Juliana Gomez of Esperanza Trading. She wants to buy 500 footballs a week for 6 months: she orders a price per ball of $4.20- take it or leave it.

Assume that the government of Verbena offers no export incentives and there are no foreign exchange problems.




  1. How much is the cost of a foot ball?

  2. Is Anderson making a profit at present? Yes, but a small profit.

  3. Does he have the manufacturing capacity to handle this order? No.

  4. Is his product “mature”?

No, because of too many returns.

  1. If he accepts the deal will he make money on it?

Probably not. He will have problems all round.

6. Why is this a good contract for Anderson?

A. The product is normally be immature

B. The manufacturer should have experience in making the product

C. The manufacturer should have enough production capacity in coping with the size of the order.

D. The quality assurance problems should already be solved.


PRACTICE: Translate into Vietnamese

Contract for fertilizer

No: 01-93/ XYZ- ABC

Date: Sep. 07 1999

Between: ..............

Address:.............

Tel:

Telex:................Fax:................



Represented by Mr................. Hereinafter called The Buyer

And: ................

Address:.............

Tel:......................

Telex:...................Fax:................... Represented by Mr........... Hereinafter called The Seller

It is mutually agreed between both sides to sign this contract with terms and specifications specified hereunder:






It is mutually agreed between both sides to sign this contract with terms and specifications specified hereunder:

ARTICLE 1: COMMODITY & SPECIFICATION

1.1 Commodity: UREA FERTILIZER

1.2 Origin: INDONESIA

1.3 Specification: - Nitrogen: 46% min.

- Moisture: 0.5% max.

- Biuret: 1.0% max.

- Color: White

- Free flowing: treated with Anti- Caking

1.4 Packing: - 50 kg net in Polypropylen Woven bag with polythylene inner liner - 2% of total bag as empty spare bags to be supplied free of charge





ARTICLE 2: UNIT PRICE - QUANTITY & TOTAL AMOUNT

2.1 Unit price: USD 178/ MT C&F Hochiminh City Port

2.2 Quantity: 10,000 MT ( plus or minus 10% at seller's option)

2.3 Total amount: USD 1,780,000 (+/- 10% at seller's option)

Say: US Dollars one million seven hundred eighty thousand.





ARTICLE 3: SHIPMENT - DELIVERY

3.1 Time of shipment: not later than September 1993

3.2 Port of loading: Indonesia main ports

3.3 Destination port: Hochiminh City Port

3.4 Notice of shipment:

Within 2 days after the sailing date of carrying vessel to S.R Vietnam, the Seller shall notify by cable to the Buyer the following information:

+ L/C number

+ Amount


+ Name and nationality of the vessel

+ Bill of Lading number/ date

+ Port of loading

+ Date of shipment

+ Expected date of arrival at discharging port

3.5 Shipping mark:

UREA

46% NITROGEN MINIMUM



1% BIURET MAXIMUM

0.5% MOISTURE MAXIMUM

50 KGS NET

USE NO HOOKS

MADE IN INDONESIA

One side printed in green color

3.6 Discharging terms:

When Notice of Readiness tendered before noon, laytime shall be commenced from 13:00 on the same date,

- When Notice of Readiness tendered afternoon, laytime shall be commenced from 8:00 on next date

3.7 Discharging term: 900MT/ day WWDSHEX EIU

Dem/ Des: USD 2,000/ half





ARTICLE 4: PAYMENT

4.1 By irrevocable Letter of Credit at sight forn B/L date for the full amount of the conntract value

4.2 L/C Beneficiary: KOLON INTERNATIONAL CORP.
45 Mugyo- Dong, Chung Gu, Seoul - Korea

4.3 L/C advising Bank: KOREA FIRST BANK


Seoul - Korea

4.4 Bank of Opening L/C: VIETCOMBANK/ EXIMBANK

4.5 Time of opening L/C: within Sep. 15 1999

4.6 Payment documents:

Payment shall be made upon receipt of the following documents:

- 3/3 of clean on board Bill of Lading marked FREIGHT PREPAID

- Commercial invoice in triplicate

- Packing list in triplicate

- Certificate of origin issued by manufaturer

- SUCOFINDO's Certificate on quality/ weight

- One copy of sailing telex/ shipping advice

- Remark: the shipping document acceptable

- 1/3 B/L ( the top copy ) and transport documents sent by DHL





ARTICLE 5: FORCE MAJEURE

Strike, sabotage, which may be occures in Origin Country shall be considered as Force Majeure







ARTICLE 6: ARBITRATION

6.1 In the execution course of this contract, all disputes not reaching at amicable agreement shall be settled by the Economic Arbitration board of Hochiminh City under the rules of the International Chamber of Commerce whose awards shall be final and binding both parties

6.2 Arbitration fee and other related charges shall be borne by the losing party, unless otherwise agreed.





ARTICLE 7: PENALTY

7.1 To delay shipment/ delay payment

In case delay shipment/ delay payment happens, the penalty for delay interest will be based on annual rate 15 percent

7.2 To delay opening L/C:

In case delay opening L/C happens, the Seller has the right to delay shipment

7.3 To cancellation of contract

If Seller or Buyer want to cancelled the contract, 5% of the total contract value would be charged as penalty to that party.

ARTICLE 8: GENERAL CONDITION

8.1 By signing this contract, previous correspondence and negotiations connected herewith shall be null and void

8.2 This contract comes into effect from signing date, any amendment and additional clause to these conditions shall be valid only if made in written form and duty confirmed by both sides.

8.3 This contract is made in 6 Ennglish originals, each side keeps 3.








PRACTICE: Translate into Vietnamese

Contract for fertilizer

No: 01-93/ XYZ- ABC

Date: Sep. 07 1999

Between: ..............

Address:.............

Tel:

Telex:................Fax:................



Represented by Mr................. Hereinafter called The Buyer

And: ................

Address:.............

Tel:......................

Telex:...................Fax:................... Represented by Mr........... Hereinafter called The Seller

It is mutually agreed between both sides to sign this contract with terms and specifications specified hereunder: (OLD ENGLISH)



Hợp đồng phân bón (bản tiếng Việt)

Hợp đồng phân bón

Số: 01-93/XYZ- ABC

Ngày 07/08/1999

Giữa:..........

Ðịa chỉ:.....

Ðiện thoại:.........

Telex:...........Fax:.........

Do ông ................ làm đại diện

Dưới đây gọi là Bên Mua

Và:.................................

Ðịa chỉ:.................

Ðiện thoại:...............

Telex:.................. Fax:................

Do Ông ..................... làm đại diện

Dưới đây gọi là : Bên Bán


Hai bên thoả thuận kí hợp đồng với những điều kiện và qui cách được nêu ra dưới đây:



ARTICLE 1: COMMODITY & SPECIFICATION

1.1 Commodity: UREA FERTILIZER

1.2 Origin: INDONESIA

1.3 Specification:

- Nitrogen: 46% min.

- Moisture: 0.5% max.

- Biuret: 1.0% max.

- Color: White

- Free flowing: treated with Anti- Caking

1.4 Packing: - 50 kg net in Polypropylen Woven bag with polyethylene inner liner - 2% of total bag as empty spare bags to be supplied free of charge)



Điều 1: Hàng hoá và quy cách kỹ thuật

1.1 Tên hàng: Phân urê

1.2 Nguồn gốc: Indonesia

1.3 Qui cách kỹ thuật:

- Nitrogen ( đạm) : 46% tối thiểu

- Ẩm độ: 0,5% tối đa

- Biuret: 1,0% tối đa

- Màu sắc: trắng

- Hạt rời: được xử lí bằng Anti- Caking

1.4 Ðóng gói: 50 kg không kể bao PP có lớp trong bằng PE 2% tổng số bao dùng làm bao dự phòng ( bao không) được cung cấp miễn phí




ARTICLE 2: UNIT PRICE - QUANTITY & TOTAL AMOUNT

2.1 Unit price: USD 178/ MT C&F Hochiminh City Port

2.2 Quantity: 10,000 MT ( plus or minus 10% at seller's option)

2.3 Total amount: USD 1,780,000 (+/- 10% at seller's option)

Say: US Dollars one million seven hundred eighty thousand.


Điều 2: Đơn giá- Số lượng - Tổng giá trị

2.1 Ðơn giá: 178,00 USD/ MT C&F cảng Hồ Chí Minh

2.2 Số lượng: 10.000 MT (+/- 10% tuỳ theo lựa chọn của bên Bán)

2.3 Tổng trị giá: 1.780.000 USD ( +/- 10% tuỳ theo lựa chọn của Bên Bán)

Ghi bằng chữ: Một triệu bảy trăm tám mươi ngàn USD


ARTICLE 3: SHIPMENT - DELIVERY

3.1 Time of shipment: not later than September 1993

3.2 Port of loading: Indonesia main ports

3.3 Destination port: Hochiminh City Port

3.4 Notice of shipment:

Within 2 days after the sailing date of carrying vessel to Socialist Republic of Vietnam, the Seller shall notify by cable to the Buyer the following information:

+ L/C number

+ Amount


+ Name and nationality of the vessel

+ Bill of Lading number/ date

+ Port of loading

+ Date of shipment

+ Expected date of arrival at discharging port

3.5 Shipping mark:

UREA

46% NITROGEN MINIMUM



1% BIURET MAXIMUM

0.5% MOISTURE MAXIMUM

50 KGS NET

USE NO HOOKS

MADE IN INDONESIA

One side printed in green color

3.6 Discharging terms:

When Notice of Readiness tendered before noon, laytime shall be commenced from 13:00 on the same date,

- When Notice of Readiness tendered afternoon, laytime shall be commenced from 8:00 on next date

3.7 Discharging term: 900MT/ day WWDSHEX EIU

Dem/ Des: USD 2,000/ half


Điều 3: Gửi và giao hàng

3.1 Thời gian gửi hàng: không trễ hơn tháng 9 năm 1999

3.2 Cảng bốc hàng: những cảng chính ở Indonesia

3.3 Cảng đến: Cảng tp Hồ Chí Minh

3.4 Thông báo gửi hàng:

Trong vòng 02 ngày sau ngày khởi hành của tàu vận tải đến nước CHXHCN Việt Nam, bên Bán sẽ phải thông báo cho bên Mua bằng điện tín những thông tin sau đây:

+ L/C số...

+ Giá trị

+ Tên và quốc tịch tàu

+ Cảng bốc hàng

+ Ngày gửi hàng

+ Ngày dự kiến tàu đến ở cảng dỡ hàng

3.5 Kí mã hiệu vận tải: kí mã hiệu của bên Bán

UREA


46% NITROGEN MINIMUM

1% BIURET MAXIMUM

0.5% MOISTURE MAXIMUM

50 KGS NET

USE NO HOOKS

MADE IN INDONESIA

Một bên phải sơn màu xanh lá cây.

3.6 Những điều kiện dỡ hàng:

khi thông báo sẵn sàng được gửi tới trước 12:00 giờ trưa, thời gian dỡ hàng bắt đầu từ 13:00 giờ cùng ngày.

Khi thông báo sẵn sàng dỡ hàng được gửi tới vào buổi chiều, thời gian dỡ hàng sẽ bắt đầu từ 8:00 giờ sáng của ngày hôm sau


3.7 Ðiều kiện dỡ hàng: 900 MT/ ngày (WWDSHEX EIU U) ngày làm việc tốt trời không kể chủ nhật và ngày lễ không được tính kể cả khi sử dụng

Tiền phạt/ tiền thưởng: 2 000 USD/1000 USD




ARTICLE 4: PAYMENT

4.1 By irrevocable Letter of Credit at sight forn B/L date for the full amount of the conntract value

4.2 L/C Beneficiary: KOLON INTERNATIONAL CORP.
45 Mugyo- Dong, Chung Gu, Seoul - Korea

4.3 L/C advising Bank: KOREA FIRST BANK Seoul - Korea

4.4 Bank of Opening L/C: VIETCOMBANK/ EXIMBANK

4.5 Time of opening L/C: within Sep. 15 1999

4.6 Payment documents:

Payment shall be made upon receipt of the following documents:

- 2/3 of clean on board Bill of Lading marked FREIGHT PREPAID

- Commercial invoice in triplicate

- Packing list in triplicate

- Certificate of origin issued by manufaturer

- SUCOFINDO's Certificate on quality/ weight

- One copy of sailing telex/ shipping advice

- Remark: the shipping document acceptable

- 1/3 B/L ( the top copy ) and transport documents sent by DHL



Ðiều 4: Thanh toán

4.1 Bằng L/C không huỷ ngang, trả tiền ngay từ ngày cấp vận đơn đường biển cho tổng trị giá hợp đồng

4.2 Người thụ hưởng L/C: KOLON INTERNATIONAL CORP. 45 Mugyo Dong, Chung Gu, Seuol - Korea

4.3 Ngân hàng thông báo L/C : KOREA FIRST BANK


Seoul - Korea

4.4 Ngân hàng mở L/C : VIETCOMBANK/ EXIMBANK

4.5 Tthời hạn mở L/C: trong ngày 15/09/1999

4.6 Chứng từ thanh toán: Việc thanh toán sẽ phải thực hiện khi nhận được những chứng từ sau đây:

- 2/3 vận đơn đường biển xếp hàng hoàn hảo có ghi cước trả trước

- Hoá đơn thương mại 03 bản

- Phiếu đóng gói hàng hoá 03 bản

- Giấy chứng nhận xuất xứ/ chứng thư nguồn gốc do người sản xuất cấp

- Giấy chứng nhận số lượng/ chất lượng cảu SUVOVINDO

- Một bản telex của tàu về thời gian khởi hành / phiếu thông báo gửi hàng

-Nhận xét: chứng từ vận chuyển sẽ được chấp nhận
- 1/3 bộ vận đơn đường biển ( bản gốc) và những chứng từ vận tải được gửi đến bên mua bằng DHL ( thư tốc hành trực tiếp trao tay)

 


ARTICLE 5: FORCE MAJEURE (MAJOR FORCE)

Strike, sabotage, which may be occures in Origin Country shall be considered as Force Majeure




Ðiều 5: Bất khả kháng

Ðình công, phá hoại có thể xảy ra ở bất cứ nước xuất xứ hàng hoá sẽ được xem như trường hợp bất khả kháng




ARTICLE 6: ARBITRATION

6.1 In the execution course of this contract, all disputes not reaching at amicable agreement shall be settled by the Economic Arbitration board of Hochiminh City under the rules of the International Chamber of Commerce whose awards shall be final and binding both parties

6.2 Arbitration fee and other related charges shall be borne by the losing party, unless otherwise agreed.


Ðiều 6: Trọng tài

6.1 Trong quá trình thực hiện hợp đồng này, mọi tranh chấp không được thoả thuận hoà giải sẽ phải được giải quyết bằng một hội đồng Trọng tài kinh tế của Tp Hồ Chí Minh theo những luật lệ của Phòng Thương mại quốc tế. Quyết định của Hội đồng trọng tài kinh tế sẽ phải là chung thẩm và ràng buộc cả hai bên

6.2 Lệ phí trọng tài và những chi phí liên hệ khác do bên thua kiện chịu, trừ khi có những thoả thuận khác


ARTICLE 7: PENALTY

7.1 To delay shipment/ delay payment

In case delay shipment/ delay payment happens, the penalty for delay interest will be based on annual rate 15 percent

7.2 To delay opening L/C:

In case delay opening L/C happens, the Seller has the right to delay shipment

7.3 To cancellation of contract

If Seller or Buyer want to cancelled the contract, 5% of the total contract value would be charged as penalty to that party.

ARTICLE 8: GENERAL CONDITION

8.1 By signing this contract, previous correspondence and negotiations connected herewith shall be null and void

8.2 This contract comes into effect from signing date, any amendment and additional clause to these conditions shall be valid only if made in written form and duty confirmed by both sides.

8.3 This contract is made in 6 Ennglish originals, each side keeps 3.




Ðiều 7: Xử phạt

7.1 Ðối với việc gửi hàng chậm trễ/ việc thanh toán chậm trễ : trong trường hợp việc gửi hàng hoặc thanh toán chậm trễ xảy ra, tiền phạt do sự chậm trễ phải chịu lãi sẽ dựa trên lãi suất hàng năm 15%

7.2 Ðối với việc chậm trễ mở L/C: trong trường hợp việc chậm trễ mở L/C xảy ra, bên bán có quyền gửi hàng chậm trễ

7.3 Huỷ bỏ hợp đồng:

Nếu bên mua hoặc bên bán huỷ bỏ hợp đồng, 5% tổng giá trị hợp đồng sẽ phải được tính là tiền phạt cho bên đó

Ðiều 8: Ðiều kiện chung

8.1 Bằng việc kí hợp đồng này, những văn bản giao dịch và những đàm phán trước đây theo đó sẽ không có giá trị và vô hiệu

8.2 Hợp đồng này có giá trị kể từ ngày ký, mọi điều khoản sửa đổi bổ sung cho những điều kiện này sẽ chỉ có giá trị khi được thực hiện bằng văn bản và nghĩa vụ được 2 bên xác nhận

8.3 Hợp đồng này được lập thành 06 bản gốc bằng tiếng Anh, mỗi bên giữ 03 bản




Contract for fertilizer

No: 01-93/ XYZ- ABC

Date: Sep. 07 1999

Between: ..............

Address:.............

Tel:

Telex:................Fax:................



Represented by Mr................. Hereinafter called The Buyer

And: ................

Address:.............

Tel:......................

Telex:...................Fax:................... Represented by Mr........... Hereinafter called The Seller

It is mutually agreed between both sides to sign this contract with terms and specifications specified hereunder:



ARTICLE 1: COMMODITY & SPECIFICATION

1.1 Commodity: UREA FERTILIZER

1.2 Origin: INDONESIA

1.3 Specification: - Nitrogen: 46% min.

- Moisture: 0.5% max.

- Biuret: 1.0% max.

- Color: White

- Free flowing: treated with Anti- Caking

1.4 Packing: - 50 kg net in Polypropylen Woven bag with polythylene inner liner - 2% of total bag as empty spare bags to be supplied free of charge

ARTICLE 2: UNIT PRICE - QUANTITY & TOTAL AMOUNT

2.1 Unit price: USD 178/ MT C&F Hochiminh City Port

2.2 Quantity: 10,000 MT ( plus or minus 10% at seller's option)

2.3 Total amount: USD 1,780,000 (+/- 10% at seller's option)

Say: US Dollars one million seven hundred eighty thousand.

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