Question 4: The phrase “stored in” is closet in meaning to .
manufactured in B. attached to C. measured by D. accumulated in
Question 5: The author states that fats serve all of the following body functions EXCEPT to_____.
A. promote the feeling of fullness B. insulate and protect the body
C. provide energy D. control weight gain.
Question 6: The word “essential” is closest in meaning to .
required for B. desired for C. similar to D. beneficial to
Question 7: Which of the following is true for rats when they are fed a fat-free diet?
They stop growing B. They have more babies
C. They lose body hair D. They require less care
Question 8:Linoleic fatty acid is mentioned as .
an essential nutrient for humans B. more useful than arachidonic acid
C. prevent weight gain in rats D. a nutrient found in most foods
Question 9: The phrases “abnormalities” refers to .
a condition caused by fried foods.
strategically located fat deposits
curves of the human female body
end of growth, bad skin, and damaged reproductive systems.
Question 10: That humans should all have some fat in our diets is .
a commonly held view B. not yet a proven fact
C. only true for women D. proven to be true by experiments on rats
COLORS AND EMOTIONS
Colors are one of the most exciting experiences in life. I love them, and they are just as important to me as emotions are. Have you ever wondered how the two are so intimately related?
Color directly affects your emotions. Color both reflects the current state of your emotions, and is something that you can use to improve or change your emotions. The color that you choose to wear either reflects your current state of being, or reflects the color or emotion that you need.
The colors that you wear affect you much more than they affect the people around you. Of course they also affect anyone who looks at or sees you, but you are the one saturated with the color all day! I even choose items around me based on their color. In the morning, I choose my clothes based on the color or emotion that I need for the day. So you can consciously use color to control the emotions that you are exposed to, which can help you to feel better.
Colors, sound, and emotions are all vibrations. Emotions are literally energy in motion; they are meant to move and flow. This is the reason why real feelings are the fastest way to get your energy in motion. Also, flowing energy is exactly what creates healthy cells in your body. So, the fastest way to be healthy is to be open to your real feelings. Alternately, the fastest way to create disease is to inhibit your emotions.
Question 1: What is the main idea of the passage?
Colorful clothes can change your mood.
Emotions and colors are closely related to each other.
Colors can help you become healthy.
Colors are one of the most exciting.
Question 2: Which of the following can be affected by color?
Your need for thrills. B. Your friend’s feeling
C. Your appetite. D. Your mood.
Question 3: Who is more influenced by colors you wear?
The people around you are more influenced.
Neither A nor C.
You are more influenced.
Both A and C.
Question 4: According to the passage, what do color, sound, and emotion all have in common?
They all affect the cells of the body.
are all forms of motion.
They are all related to health.
None of the above
Question 5: According to this passage, what creates disease?
Wearing the color black B. Exposing yourself to bright colors
C. Being open to your emotions D. Inhibiting your emotions
Question 6: The word “intimately” in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to:
clearly B. closely C. obviously D. simply
Question 7: The word “they” in paragraph 3 refers to………
emotions B. people C. colors D. none of the above
Question 8: Why does the author mention that color and emotions are both vibrations?
To show how color can affect energy levels in the body.
Because they both affect how we feel.
To prove the relationship between emotions and color.
Because vibrations make you healthy.
Question 9: The phrase “saturated with” in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to……………
A. bored with B. in need of C. covered with D. lacking in
Question 10: What is the purpose of the passage?
To persuade the reader that colors can influence emotions and give a person move energy.
To show that colors are important for a healthy life.
To give an objective account of how colors affect emotions.
To prove the relationship between color and emotion.
May 7, 1840, was the birthday of one of the most famous Russian composers of the nineteenth century Peter Illich Tchaikovsky. The son of a mining inspector, Tchaikovsky studied music as a child and later studied composition at the St. Petersburg Conservatory.
His greatest period of productivity occurred between 1876 and 1890, during which time he enjoyed the patronage of Madame von Meck, a woman he never met, who gave him a living stipend of about $1,000.00 a year. Madame von Meck later terminated her friendship with Tchaikovsky, as well as his living allowance, when she, herself, was facing financial difficulties. It was during the time of Madame von Meck’s patronage, however, that Tchaikovsky created the music for which he is most famous, including the music for the ballets of Swan Lake and The Sleeping Beauty. Tchaikovsky’s music, well known for its rich melodic and sometimes melancholy passages, was one of the first that brought serious dramatic music to dance. Before this, little attention had been given to the music behind the dance. Tchaikovsky died on November 6, 1893, ostensibly of cholera, though there are now some scholars who argue that he committed suicide.
1. With what topic is the passage primarily concerned?
A. the life and music of Tchaikovsky
B. development of Tchaikovsky’s music for ballets
C. Tchaikovsky’s relationship with Madame Von Meck
D. the cause of Tchaikovsky’s death
2. Tchaikovsky’s father was most probably…………….
A. a musician B. a supervisor C. a composer D. a soldier
3. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word “productivity” in line 4?
A. fertility B. maturity C. affinity D. creativity
4. In line 5, the phrase “enjoyed the patronage of” probably means………….
A. liked the company of B. was mentally attached to
C. was financially dependent upon D. solicited the advice of
5. Which of the following could best replace the word “terminated” in line 6?
A. discontinued B. resolved C. exploited D. hated
6. According to the passage, all of the following describe Madame von Meck EXCEPT
A. She had economic troubles. B. She enjoyed Tchaikovsky’s music.
C. She was generous. D. She was never introduced to Tchaikovsky.
7. According to the passage, for what is Tchaikovsky’s music most well known?
A. its repetitive and monotonous tones B. the ballet-like quality of the music
C. the richness and melodic drama of the music D. its lively, capricious melodies
8. According to the passage, “Swan Lake” and “The Sleeping Beauty” are………..
A. dances B. songs C. operas D. plays
9. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage?
A. Tchaikovsky’s influence on ballet music B. Tchaikovsky’s unhappiness leading to suicide
C. the patronage of Madame von Meck D. Tchaikovsky’s productivity in composing
10. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word “behind” as used in line 11?
A. in back of B. supporting C. going beyond D. concealing
The peregrine falcon, a predatory bird indigenous to North America, was once in danger of extinction. In the 1960s, scientists discovered byproducts of the pesticide DDT in the birds’ eggs, which caused them to be too soft to survive. The use of the pesticide had been banned in the United States, but the falcons were eating migratory birds from other places where DDT was still used. In order to increase the survival rate, scientists were raising the birds in laboratories and then releasing them into mountainous areas. This practice achieved only moderate success, however, because many of the birds raised in captivity could not survive in the wild.
There is now, however, a new alternative to releases in the wild. A falcon that has been given the name Scarlett chose to make her home on a ledge of the 33rd floor of a Baltimore, Maryland, office building rather than in the wild, and, to the surprise of the scientists, she has managed to live quite well in the city. Following this example, programs have been initiated that release birds like Scarlett into cities rather than into their natural wild habitat. These urban releases are becoming a common way to strengthen the species. Urban homes have several benefits for the birds that wild spots do not. First, there is an abundance of pigeons and small birds as food sources. The peregrine in the city is also protected from its main predator, the great horned owl. Urban release programs have been very successful in reestablishing the peregrine falcons along the East Coast. Although they are still an endangered species, their numbers increased from about 60 nesting pairs in 1975 to about 700 pairs in 1992. In another decade the species may flourish again, this time without human help.
1. What is the main topic of the passage?
A. survival of peregrine falcons B. releases into the wild
C. endangered species D. harmful effects of pesticides
2. In line 1, the phrase “indigenous to” could be best replaced by…………..
A. typical of B. protected by
C. adapted to D. native to
3. The word “byproducts” in line 2 could best be replaced by which of the following?
A. derivatives B. proceeds C. chemicals D. elements
4. In line 3, the word “banned” could be best replaced by
A. authorized B. developed C. disseminated D. prohibited
5. Which of the following words is closest in meaning to the word “rate” as used in line 5?
A. speed B. percentage C. continuation D. behavior
6. Why were the peregrine falcons in danger?
A. because of pesticides used by American farmers
B. because they migrated to countries where their eggs could not survive
C. because they ate birds from other countries where DDT was still used
D. because they were prized by hunters and hunted to near extinction
7. The word “releases” as used in line 8 most probably means……………
A. internment B. regression
C. distribution D. possessions
8. According to the passage, which of the following is NOT a reason why a falcon might choose to live in a city?
A. There are high places to nest. B. There are other falcons nearby.
C. There is a lack of predators. D. There is abundant food.
9. As used in line 13, the word “spots” could best be replaced by…………..
A. places B. dilemmas
C. jungles D. materials
10. According to the passage, where have the release programs been the most successful?
A. in office buildings B. on the East Coast
C. in mountainous areas D. in the wild
What geologists call the Basin and Range Province in the United States roughly coincides in its northern portions with the geographic province known as the Great Basin. The Great Basin is hemmed in on the west by the Sierra Nevada and on the east by the Rocky Mountains; it has no outlet to the sea. The prevailing winds in the Great Basin are from the west. Warm, moist air from the Pacific Ocean is forced upward as it crosses the Sierra Nevada. At the higher altitudes it cools and the moisture it carriers is precipitated as rain or snow on the western slopes of the mountains. That which reaches the Basin is air wrung dry of moisture. What little water falls there as rain or snow, mostly in the winter months, evaporates on the broad, flat desert floors. It is, therefore, an environment in which organisms battle for survival. Along the rare watercourses, cottonwoods and willows eke out a sparse existence. In the upland ranges, pinon pines and junipers struggle to hold their own.
But the Great Basin has not always been so arid. Many of its dry, closed depressions were once filled with water. Owens Valley, Panamint Valley, and Death Valley were once a string of interconnected lakes. The two largest of the ancient lakes of the Great Basin were Lake Lahontan and Lake Bonneville. The Great Salt Lake is all that remains of the latter, and Pyramid Lake is one of the last briny remnants of the former.
There seem to have been several periods within the last tens of thousands of years when water accumulated in these basins. The rise and fall of the lakes were undoubtedly linked to the advances and retreats of the great ice sheets that covered much of the northern part of the North American continent during those times. Climatic changes during the Ice ages sometimes brought cooler, wetter weather to midlatitude deserts worldwide, including those of the Great Basin. The broken valleys of the Great Basin provided ready receptacles for this moisture.
1. What is the geographical relationship between the Basin and Range Province and the Great Basin?
A. The Great Basin is west of the Basin and Range Province.
B. The Great Basin is larger than the Basin and Range Province.
C. The Great Basin is in the northern part of the Basin and Range Province.
D. The Great Basin is mountainous; the Basin and Range Province is flat desert.
2. According to the passage, what does the great Basin lack?
A. Snow B. Dry air C. Winds from the west D. Access to the ocean
3. The word 'prevailing' in line 4 is closest in meaning to
A. most frequent B. occasional C. gentle D. most dangerous
4. It can be inferred that the climate in the Great Basin is dry because …………..
A. the weather patterns are so turbulent B. the altitude prevents precipitation
C. the winds are not strong enough to carry moisture D. precipitation falls in the nearby mountains
5. The word 'it' in line 5 refers to …………
A. Pacific Ocean B. air C. west D. the Great Basin
6. Why does the author mention cottonwoods and willows in line 11?
A. To demonstrate that certain trees require a lot of water
B. To give examples of trees that are able to survive in a difficult environment
C. To show the beauty of the landscape of the Great Basin
D. To assert that there are more living organisms in the Great Basin than there used to be
7. Why does the author mention Owens Valley, Panamint Valley, and Death Valley in the second paragraph?
A. To explain their geographical formation
B. To give examples of depressions that once contained water
C. To compare the characteristics of the valleys with the characteristics of the lakes
D. To explain what the Great Basin is like today
8. The words 'the former' in line 15 refer to ……………
A. Lake Bonneville B. Lake Lahontan C. The Great Salt Lake D. Pyramid Lake
9. The word 'accumulated' in line 17 is closest in meaning to …………
A. dried B. flooded C. collected D. evaporated
10. According to the passage, the Ice Ages often brought about ………….
A. desert formation B. warmer climates C. broken valleys D. wetter weather
The word laser was coined as an acronym for Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Ordinary light, from the Sun or a light bulb, is emitted spontaneously, when atoms or molecules get rid of excess energy by themselves, without any outside intervention. Stimulated emission is different because it occurs when an atom or molecule holding onto excess energy has been stimulated to emit it as light.
Albert Einstein was the first to suggest the existence of stimulated emission in a paper published in 1917. However, for many years physicists thought that atoms and molecules always were much more likely to emit light spontaneously and that stimulated emission thus always would be much weaker. It was not until after the Second World War that physicists began trying to make stimulated emission dominate. They sought ways by which one atom or molecule could stimulate many other to emit light , amplifying it to much higher powers.
The first to succeed was Charles H.Townes, then at Colombia University in New York . Instead of working with light, however, he worked with microwaves, which have a much longer wavelength, and built a device he called a "maser" for Microwave Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Although he thought of the key idea in 1951, the first maser was not completed until a couple of years later. Before long, many other physicists were building masers and trying to discover how to produce stimulated emission at even shorter wavelength.
The key concepts emerged about 1957. Townes and Arthur Schawlow, then at Bell Telephone Laboratories, wrote a long paper outlining the conditions needed to amplify stimulated emission of visible light waves. At about the same time, similar ideas crystallized in the mind of Gordon Gould, then a 37-year-old graduate student at Columbia, who wrote them down in a series of notebooks. Townes and Schawlow published their ideas in a scientific journal, Physical Review Letter, but Gould filed a patent application. Three decades later, people still argue about who deserves the credit for the concept of the laser.
1. The word 'coin' in line 1 could be replaced by ………….
A. created B. mentioned C. understood D. discovered
2. The word 'intervention' in line 3 can best be replaced by …………
A. need B. device C. influence D. source
3. The word 'it' in line 5 refers to ……..
A. light bulb B. energy C. molecule D. atom
4. Which of the following statements best describes a laser?
A. A device for stimulating atoms and molecules to emit light
B. An atom in a high-energy state
C. A technique for destroying atoms or molecules
D. An instrument for measuring light waves
5. Why was Towne's early work with stimulated emission done with microwaves?
A. He was not concerned with light amplification
B. It was easier to work with longer wavelengths.
C. His partner Schawlow had already begun work on the laser.
D. The laser had already been developed
6. In his research at Columbia University, Charles Townes worked with all of the following EXCEPT ….
A. stimulated emission B. microwaves C. light amplification D. a maser
7. In approximately what year was the first maser built?
A. 1917 B. 1951 C. 1953 D. 1957
8. The word 'emerged' in line 18 is closest in meaning to ………….
A. increased B. concluded C. succeeded D. appeared
9. The word 'outlining' in line 19 is closest in meaning to ……………
A. assigning B. studying C. checking D. summarizing
10. Why do people still argue about who deserves the credit for the concept of the laser?
A. The researchers' notebooks were lost.
B. Several people were developing the idea at the same time.
C. No one claimed credit for the development until recently.
D. The work is still incomplete.
CHUYÊN ĐỀ 20
CHỨC NĂNG GIAO TIẾP (COMMUNICATION SKILL)
* PHẦN I: LÝ THUYẾT
Bài tập về chức năng giao tiếp bao gồm những mẩu đối thoại ngắn, thường là dạng hỏi và trả lời giữa hai đối tượng A và B. Mục đích của dạng bài tập này là chọn đúng phần khuyết để hoàn thành đoạn hội thoại ngắn này.
I. Thu thập và xác định thông tin.
1. Câu hỏi Có-Không (Yes-No question)
Câu hỏi: bắt đầu bằng các trợ động từ: am, is, are, was, were, do, does, did, will, would, have, may. might, can, could...
Câu trả lời: bắt đầu bằng “Yes” hoặc “No” và đưa thêm thông tin.
Ta cũng có thể trả lời bằng:
- I think/ believe/ hope/ expect/ guess so. (Tôi nghĩ/ tin/ hy vọng/ mong/ đoán thế.)
- Sure/ Actually/ Of course/ Right... (Dĩ nhiên/ Chắc chắn rồi.)
- I don’t think/ believe/ expect/ guess so. (Tôi không nghĩ/ tin/ mong/ cho rằng thế.)
- I hope/ believe/ guess/ suppose not. (Tôi hy vọng/ tin/ đoán/ cho là không.)
- I’m afraid not. (Tôi e rằng không.)
2. Câu hỏi chọn lựa (Or questions)
Câu hỏi: thường chứa các từ “or” và yêu cầu phải lựa chọn một phương án.
Câu trả lời: là câu chọn một trong hai sự lựa chọn được đưa ra trong câu hỏi. Ta không dùng từ “Yes” hoặc “No” để trả lời câu hỏi này.
Ví dụ: Are they Chinese or Japanese? – They’re Japanese.
Pork or beef?- Beef, please/ I’d prefer beef.
3. Câu hỏi có từ để hỏi (Wh-questions)
Câu hỏi: bắt đầu bằng các từ để hỏi như what, which, who, whose, where, when, why, how...để thu thập thông tin.
Câu trả lời: cần cung cấp thông tin nêu trong câu hỏi.
Ví dụ: What did he talk about?- His familly.
What was the party like?- Oh, we had a good time.
Which of these pens is your?- The red one.
How often do you go to the cinema?- Every Sunday.
Why did he fail the exam?- Because he didn’t prepare well for it.
4. Câu hỏi đuôi (Tag questions)
Câu hỏi: thường dùng để xác nhận thông tin với ngữ điệu xuống ở cuối cấu hỏi.
Câu trả lời: cũng giống như câu hỏi Có-Không.
Ví dụ: Jane left early for the first train, didn’t she?- Yes, she did.
Peter made a lot of mistakes again, didn’t he?- Right, he did.
5. Hỏi đường hoặc lời chỉ dẫn (asking for directions or instructions).
Lời hỏi đường:
- Could you show me the way to...? (Anh làm ơn chỉ đường đến....)
- Could you be so kind to show me how to get to...? (Anh có thể vui lòng chỉ đường đến...)
- Is there a bank near here?/ Where’s the nearest bank? (Ở đây có ngân hàng không?/ Ngân hàng gần nhất ở đâu vậy?)
- Turn left/ right. (Rẽ trái/ phải.)
- Go straight ahead for two blocks and then turn left. (Đi thẳng qua hai dãy nhà rồi rẽ trái.)
-Keep walking until you reach/ see... (Cứ đi thẳng đến khi anh đến/ thấy...)
- It’s just around the corner. (Nó ở ngay ở góc đường.)
- It’s a long way. You should take a taxi. (Một quãng đường dài đấy. Anh nên đón taxi.)
- Sorry, I’m new here/ I’m a stranger here myself. (Xin lỗi, tôi mới đến vùng này.)
- Sorry, I don’t know this area very well. (Xin lỗi, tôi không rành khu vực này lắm.)
Lời xin được chỉ dẫn:
- Could you show me how to operate this machine? (Anh làm ơn chỉ cho tôi cách vận hành chiếc máy này.)
- Could you tell me how to...? (Anh hãy chỉ cho tôi làm thể nào để.....)
- How does this machine work? Do you know? (Cái máy này hoạt động thế nào? Anh có biết không?)
- First,...Second,...Then,...Finally,... (Trước hết...Kế đến...Tiếp theo...Cuối cùng...)
- The first step is..., then... (Bước đầu tiên là...., rồi...)
- Remember to... (Hãy nhớ là...)
- Well, It’s very simple. (À, đơn giản lắm.)