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part of speech may fit in each gap (article?, pronoun?, noun?, adverb?, adjective?, preposition?, conjunction?, verb?) and pay special attention to the grammar around the words in each gap.

Many of the gaps may include the following:

- preposition following a noun, adjective or verb. (Example: good at languages)

- prepositional phrase. (Example: in spite of )

- adverb. ( Example: He moved to London two years ago )

- connector. (Example: First, he arrives; then he sits down; finally, he leaves.)

- conjunction. (Example: Although he is five, he can speak five languages.

- auxiliary verb . (Example: He has won 2 matches)

- an article or some other kind of determiner. (Example: I have no time)

- a relative . (Example: Bob, who I met two years ago, is my best friend)

- a pronoun , either subject or object. (Example : it is difficult to know)

- is there a comparative or superlative involved? (Example: she's taller than me)

• Some sentences may seem to be complete and contain gaps that appear to be unnecessary. If you find gaps like this, you will probably need the following:

- an adverb. (Example: He is always late)

- a modal verb . (Example: They can swim very well)

- a word to change the emphasis of the sentence: She's good enough to be queen

- The problems are too difficult

• A few gaps may demand a vocabulary item consistent with the topic of the text; or a word which is part of an idiomatic expression (example: Good heavens!); or a word which collocates with another one (example: do a job); or a word which is part of a phrasal verb (example: I was held up by traffic).

EXERCISES
Mark the letter A, B, C or D to indicate the word or phrase that best fits each of the blank:

PASSAGE 1

Clean freshwater resources are essential for drinking, bathing, cooking, irrigation, industry, and for plant and animal (1) ____. Unfortunately, the global supply of freshwater is (2) ____ unevenly. Chronic water shortages (3) ____ in most ofAfricaand drought is common over much of the globe. The (4) ____ of most freshwater supplies - groundwater (water located below the soil surface), reservoirs, and rivers - are under severe and (5) ____ environmental stress because of overuse, water pollution, and ecosystem degradation. Over 95 percent of urban sewage in (6) ____ countries is (7) ____ untreated into surface waters such as rivers and harbors;

About 65 percent of the global freshwater supply is used in (8) ____ and 25 percent is used in industry. Freshwater (9) ____ therefore requires a reduction in wasteful practices like (10) ____ irrigation, reforms in agriculture and. industry, and strict pollution controls worldwide.

1. A. survive                    B. survived                  C. surviving                 D. survival

2. A. delivered                B. distributed              C. provided                 D. given

3. A. exist                        B. lie                            C. show                       D. l:itay

4. A. resources                B. springs                    C. sources                    D. starting

5. A. increasing               B. growing                  C. climbing                  D. ascending

6. A. growing                  B. miserable                C. poverty                   D. developing

7. A. recharged               B. discharged              C. charged                   D. discharging

8. A. farming                   B. planting                  C. agriculture              D. growing

9. A. reservation              B. conservation         C. preservation              D. retention

10. A. ineffective              B. illogical                   C. irrational                 D. inefficient
PASSAGE 2

Some time ago, scientists began experiments to find out (1)______ it would be possible to set up a “village” under the sea. A special room was built and lowered (2)______ the water of Port Sudan in the Red Sea. For 29 days, five men lived (3)______ a depth of 40 feet. At a (4)______ lower level, another two divers stayed for a week in a smaller “house”. On returning to the surface, the men said that they had experienced no difficulty in breathing and had (5)______ many interesting scientific observations. The captain of the party, Commander Cousteau, spoke of the possibility of (6)______ the seabed. He said that some permanent stations were to be set up under the sea, and some undersea farms would provide food for the growing population of the world.

The divers in both “houses” spent most of their time (7)______ the bottom of the sea. On four occasions, they went down to 360 feet and observed many extraordinary (8)______ of the marine life, some of which had never been seen before. During their stay, Commander Cousteau and his divers reached a depth of 1,000 feet and witnessed a gathering of an immense (9)______ of crabs which numbered, perhaps, hundreds of millions. They also found out that it was (10)______ to move rapidly in the water in a special vessel known as a “diving saucer”.
1. A. which B. what C. how D. whether

2. A. underneath B. into C. down D. below

3. A. in B. at C. on D. from

4. A. any B. more C. much D. some



5. A. made B. exercised C. caught D. done

6. A. implanting B. transplanting C. growing D. cultivating

7. A. inquiring B. exploring C. imploring D. enquiring

8. A. systems B. forms C. breeds D. castes

9. A. pack B. herd C. school D. flock

10. A. able B. possible C. hardly D. capable


PASSAGE 3

Eight out of ten British schools require students to wear school uniforms. Wearing a uniform has been …(1)………as part of British school tradition for a long time, and makes a good …(2)…on people. Some schools have used the idea of school uniform as a(n) (3)……….to let the students …(4)….themselves by designing their uniform so they could (5)…..a part in deciding what they would wear every day.

The UK government has just …(6)…… the results of a study which showed that many parents actually dread the beginning of the school year because they cannot (7)….to buy their children school uniforms. This is because schools in many areas make arrangements with one local shop so that their uniforms can only be bought there, and this (8)….the shop to increase the prices because it doesn’t have any …(9)… The result of the survey is that pressure will now be put on schools to (10)………with the problem and make sure that uniforms can be bought at reasonable prices.
1. A. regarded B. considered C. thought D. supposed

2. A. effect B. reaction C. recognition D. impression

3. A. opportunity B. ability C. potential D. benefit

4. A. convey B. express C. produce D. identify

5. A. take B. make C. play D. turn

6. A. told B. discovered C. portrayed D. announced

7. A. participate B. allow C. pay D. afford

8. A. suits B. lets C. enables D. manages

9. A. critic B. competition C. consequence D. risk

10. A. affect B. manage C. relate D. deal


PASSAGE 4
THE HISTORY OF BEACH VOLLEYBALL.

Beach volleyball is played by people around the world. For some, it is a serious sport. For others, it is simply an enjoyable ... (1) ....which helps them to .... (2)......fit. It was probably first played in Hawaii in 1915. ... (3)..........., surfers played this game once in a .... (4)........., as they were waiting for the right kind of waves to go surfing. But it soon developed into a more serious game and matchesstarted taking place.. (5)....

Later the game reached California and in 1920, people began playing beach volleyball there. They discovered it was a great way to work .. (6)...and get plenty of...... (7).... air at the same time. Another reason for the game’s .. (8).......was that it was very cheap. Soon, volleyball nets began appearing on beaches in California and interest in the sport.... (9).....

At first, there were six players on each side as in indoor volleyball. But one day in 1930, when only four people turned up for a match, they.. (10)...to play two on each side- which is how we play the game today.


1. A. activity B. athlete C. method D. habit

2. A. make B. do C. keep D. take

3. A. Luckily B. Particularly C. Properly D. Apparently

4. A. time B. day C. while D. week

5. A. regularly B. successfully C. correctly D. probably

6. A. off B. up C. on D. out

7. A. clear B. fresh C. cool D. good

8. A. benefit B. attention C. popularity D. fun

9. A. strengthened B. repeated C. improved D. grew

10. A. considered B. decided C. included D. explained


PASSAGE 5

English is the (1)………important in the world today. A very large (2)………..of people understand and use English in many (3)………….of the world.

Indeed English is a very useful language. If we (4)………English we can go to any place or country we like. We shall not find it hard to (5)………..people understand what we want to say.

English also helps us to learn all kinds of subjects. Hundreds of books are (6)……….in English everyday in many countries to teach people many useful things. (7)……..English language has therefore helped to spread ideas and knowledge to all the corners of the world. There is no subject that cannot be (8)………….in English.

As English is used so much everywhere in the world, it has helped to make the countries in the world more (9)………….The leaders of the world use English to understand one another. The English language has, therefore, helped to spread better understanding and friendship among countries of the world.

Lastly, a person who knows English is respected. It is for all these (10)……that I want to learn English

.

1. A. most B. mostly C. chiefly D. best



2. A. few B. deal C. amount D. number

3. A. countries B. places C. sites D. scenes

4. A. realize B. say C. speak D. tell

5. A. get B. let C. persuade D. make

6. A. published B. wrote C. print D. made

7. A. A B. An C. That D. The

8. A. recognized B. realized C. known D. taught

9. A. friend B. friendly C. friendship D. friendliness

10. A. reasons B. causes C. effects D. results

PASSAGE 6

Nowadays people are more aware that the wildlife all over the world is in danger. Many (1)…….. of animals are threatened, and could easily become extinct if we do not make an effort to(2)………….

There are many reasons for this. In some cases, animals are (3)………for their fur or for other valuable parts of their bodies. Some birds, such as parrots, are caught (4)………….., and sold as pets. For many animals and birds, the problem is that their habitat- the place where they live – is (5)…………. More (6)……….is used for farms, for houses or industry, and there are fewer open (7)………than there once were. Farmers use powerful chemicals to help them grow better (8)………….., but these chemicals pollute the environment and (9)…………wildlife. The most successful animal on earth- human being – will soon be the only ones (10)………., unless we can solve this problem.
1. A. species B. series C. kinds D. families

2. A. harm B. protect C. safe D. serve

3. A. extinct B. game C. chased D. hunted

4. A. alive B. for life C. for living D. lively

5. A. exhausting B. disappearing C. departing D. escaping

6. A. earth B. soil C. land D. area

7. A air B. up C. parts D. spaces

8. A. crops B. products C. fields D. herbs

9. A. spoil B. harm C. wound D. wrong

10. A. survived B. over C. left D. missing



PASSAGE 7

Although women now (1)____almost half of all workers in the US, nearly 80 percent of them are employed in low-paying clerical, sales, service, or factory jobs. Approximately a third of all women workers have clerical jobs, which pay(2)____average $12,000 or less. Partly as a result, women make only seventy-five cents for every dollar (3)___by men. (4)_____, men routinely make more money even when education, experience, and responsibilties are (5)___

The gap in male-female earning had great significance because more than 16 percent of US households are (6)_____by women. Low-paying jobs keep many of these households in poverty. Women’s groups such as National Organization for Women have demanded that equal opportunities and equal pay (7)______to women. According to women’s (8)_____Maggie McAnany, “It is imperative that the government help to change the stiation (of employment for women). We cannot wait for the companies to (9)_____themselves. Change must come (10)______the law.”
1. A. made of B. make up C. take up D. take in

2. A. on B. at C. in D. for

3.A. earns B. earning C. to earn D. earned

4. A. Although B. Whatever C. Moreover D. Contrary

5. A. equally B. equality C. equal D. equalizing

6. A. headed B. hosted C. carried D. licensed

7. A. are giving B. are given C. is giving D. be given

8. A. action B. activity C. activist D. active

9. A. restore B. regain C. regard D. reform

10. A. for B. through C. at D. along


PASSAGE 8
If you are invited to someone's house for dinner in the United States, you should (1) _______ a gift, such as a bunch of flowers or a box of chocolates. If you give your host a (2) _______ gift, he/she may open it in front of you. Opening a present in front of the gift-giver is considered (3) _______. It shows that the host is excited about receiving the gift and wants to show his/her (4) ______ to you immediately. (5) _____ the host doesn't like it, he/she will tell a "(6) _____ lie" and say how much they like the gift to prevent the guest from feeling bad. If your host asks you to arrive at a particular time, you should not arrive (7) _______ on time or earlier than the (8) _______ time, because this is considered to be potentially inconvenient and (9) _______ rude, as the host may not be (10) _______.



1. A. take

B give

C. bring

D. make

2. A. unwanted

B valuable

C. unpacked

D. wrapped

3. A. rude

B. polite

C. impolite

D. funny

4. A. appreciation

B. admiration

C. respect

D. enjoyment

5. A. Since

B. Only if

C. Even if

D. Whether

6. A. great

B. obvious

C. deliberate

D. white

7. A. gradually

B. exactly

C. perfectly

D. recently

8. A. expected

B. permitted

C. waited

D. wasted

9. A. however

B. never

C. therefore

D. consequently

10.A. willing

B. ready

C. welcome

D. waiting


PASSAGE 9

Interpreting the feelings of other people is not always easy, as we all know, and we (1)……… as much on what they seem to be telling us, as on the actual words they say. Facial (2)……… and tone of voice are obvious ways of showing our reaction to something, and it may well be that we (3)….express views that we are trying to hide. The art of being (4)……… …lies in picking up these signals, realising what the other person is trying to say, and acting so that they are not embarrassed in any way. For example, we may understand that they are in fact (5)… ……..to answer our question, and so we stop pressing them. Body movements in general may also indicate feelings, and interviewers often (6)…… ……particular attention to the way a candicate for a job walks into the room and sits down. However, it is not difficult to present the right kind of appearance while what many employers want to know relates to the candidate’s character traits, and (7)… …..stability. This raises the awkward question of whether job candidates should be asked to complete psychological tests, and the further problem of whether such tests actually produce reliable results. For many people, being asked to take part in such a test would be an objectionable (8)…… ……..into their private lives.

After all, a prospective employer would hardly ask a candidate to run a hundred metres, or expect his or her family doctor to provide (9)……… ….medical information. Quite apart from this problem, can such tests predict whether a person is likely to be a (10)…… ……employee or a valued colleague?


1. A. estimate

B. rely

C. reckon

D. trust

2. A. looks

B. expression

C. image

D. manner

3. A. unconsciously

B. rarely

C. unaware

D. cannot

4. A. good at

B. humble

C. tactful

D. successful

5. A. reluctant

B. used

C. tending

D. hesitant

6. A. set

B. again

C. in

D. pay

7. A. similar

B. physical

C. psychological

D. relevant

8. A. invation

B. intrusion

C. infringement

D. interference

9. A. classified

B. secretive

C. reticent

D. confidential

10. A. thorough

B. particular

C. labourious

D. conscientious


PASSAGE 10

Ask anyone over forty to make a comparison (1)…………………the past and the present and nine out of ten people will tell you that things have been getting (2)……………….worse for as long as they can remember. Take the weather for example, which has been behaving rather strangely lately. Everyone remembers that in their childhood the summers were (3)………………hotter, and that winter always included abundant falls of snow just when the school holidays had started. Of course, the food in those days was far superior too, as nothing was imported and everything was fresh. Unemployment was (4)……………….. , the pound really was worth something, and you could buy a sizeable house even if your means were (5)…………….. And above all, people were somehow better in those days, far more friendly, not inclined to crime or violence, and spent their free time making mordern boats and tending their stamp collections (6)………………. than gazing at the television screen for hours on end. As we know that this picture of the past (7)…………………cannot be true, and there are plenty of statistics dealing with health and prosperity which prove that it is not true, why is it that we all have a (8)………………..to idealize the past? Is this simply nostalgia? Or is it rather that we need to believe in an image of the world which is (9)………………..the opposite of what we see around us? Whichever it is, at least it leaves us with a nagging feeling that the present could be better, and perhaps (10)………………….us to be a little more critical about the way we live.




1. A. with

B. from

C. between

D. in

2. A. out

B. so

C. virtually

D. steadily

3. A. not only

B. at least

C. rarely

D. considerably

4. A. petty

B. negligible

C. miniature

D. trivial

5. A. mediocre

B. confined

C. rationed

D. limited

6. A. other

B. rather

C. usually

D. different

7. A. simly

B. hardly

C. especially

D. specifically

8. A. habit

B. custom

C. tendency

D. practice

9. A. quite

B. widely

C. utterly

D. rather

10. A. reassures

B. encourages

C. makes

D. supports



B. READING COMPREHENSION
STRATEGIES FOR THE READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS.


  1. Skim the reading passage to determine the main idea and the overall organization od ideas in the passage. You do not neeed to understand every detail in each passage to answer the questions correctly. It is therefore a waste of time to read the passage with the intent of understanding every single detail before you try to answer the questions.



  1. Look ahead at the questions to determine what types of questions you must answer. Each type of questions is answered in a different way.



  1. Find the section of the passage that deals with each question. The question type tells you exactly where to look in the passage to find correct answers.

  • For main idea questions, look at the first line of each paragraph

  • For directly and indirectly answered detail questions, choose a key word in the question, and skim for that key word (or a related idea) in order in the passage.

  • For vocabulary questions, the question will tell you where the word is located in the passage.

  • For overall review questions, the answers are found anywhere in the passage.



  1. Read the part of the passage that contains the answer carefully. The answer will probably in the same sentence (or one sentence before or after) thekey word or idea.



  1. Choose the best answer to each question from the four answer choices listed. You can choose the best answer according to what is given in the appropriate section of thepassage, eliminate definitely wrong answer, and mark your best guess on the answer sheet.

Questions about the ideas of the passage

SKILL I: ANSWER MAIN IDEA QUESTIONS CORRECTLY

MAIN IDEA QUESTIONS

HOW TO IDENTIFY THE QUESTION

What is the topic of the passage?

What is the subject of the passage?

What is the main idea of the passage?

What is the author’s main point in the passage?

With what is the author primarily concerned?

Which of the following would be the best title?




WHERE TO FIND THE ANSWER

The answers to this type of question can generally be determined by looking at the first sentence of each paragraph.


HOW TO ANSWER THE QUESTION

  1. Read the first line of each paragraph.

  2. Look for a common theme or idea in the first lines.

  3. Pass your eyes quickly over the rest of the passage to check that you have really found the topic sentence(s).

  4. Eliminate any definitely wrong answers and choose the best answer from the remaining choices.



SKILL 2: RECOGNIZE THE ORGANIZATION OF IDEAS


ORGANIZATION OF IDEAS

HOW TO IDENTIFY THE

QUESTION


How is the information in the passage organized?

How is the information in the second paragraph related to the information in the first paragraph?




WHERE TO FIND THE

ANSWER


The answer to this type of question can generally be determined by looking at the first sentence of the appropriate paragraphs

HOW TO ANSWER THE

QUESTION


  1. Read the first line of each paragraph

  2. Look for words that show the relationship between the paragraphsp

  3. Choose the answer that best expresses the relationship

SKILL 3: ANSWER STATED DETAIL QUESTIONS CORRECTLY

STATED DETAIL QUESTIONS

HOW TO IDENTIFY THE QUESTION

According to the passage…

It is stated in the passage…

The passage indicates that…

Which of the following is true..?



WHERE TO FIND THE ANSWER

The answers to these questions are found in the passage.

HOW TO ANSWER THE QUESTION

  1. Choose a key word in the question.

  2. Skim in the appropriate part of the passage for the key word or idea.

  3. Read the sentence that contains the key word or idea carefully.

  4. Eliminate the definitely wrong answers and choose the best answer from the remaining choices.

SKILL 4: FIND “UNSTATED” DETAILS

UNSTATED” DETAIL QUESTIONS

HOW TO IDENTIFY THE QUESTION

Which of the following is not stated…?

Which of the following is not mentioned…?

Which of the following is not discussed…?

All of the following are true except



WHERE TO FIND THE ANSWER

The answers to these questions are found in order in the passage.

HOW TO ANSWER THE QUESTION

  1. Choose a key word in the question.

  2. Scan the appropriate place in the passage for the key word (or related idea).

  3. Read the sentence that contains the key word or idea carefully.

  4. Look for the answers that are definitely true according to the passage. Eliminate those answers.

  5. Choose the answer that is not true or not discussed in the passage.

SKILL 5: FIND PRONOUN REFERENTS

PRONOUN REFERENTS

HOW TO IDENTIFY THE QUESTION

The pronoun “…” in line X refers to which of the following?

WHERE TO FIND THE ANSWER

The line where the pronoun is located is given in the question. The noun that the pronoun refers to is generally found before the pronoun.

HOW TO ANSWER THE QUESTION

  1. Locate the pronoun in the passage.

  2. Look before the pronoun for nouns that agree with the pronoun.

  3. Try each of the nouns in the context in place of the pronoun.

  4. Eliminate any definitely wrong answers and choose the best answer from the remaining choices.



SKILL 6- ANSWER IMPLIED DETAIL QUESTIONS CORRECTLY

IMPLIED DETAIL QUESTIONS

HOW TO IDENTIFY THE QUESTION

It is implied in the passage that …..

It can be inferred from the passage that ….

It is most likely that ….

What probably happened ….?



WHERE TO FIND THE ANSWER

The answers to these questions are generally found in order in the passage.

HOW TO ANSWER THE QUESTION

  1. Choose a key word in the question

  2. Scan the passage for the key word (or a related idea)

  3. Carefully read the sentence that contains the key word

  4. Look for an answer that could be true, according to that sentence

SKILL 7: ANSWER TRANSITION QUESTIONS CORRECTLY

TRANSITION QUESTIONS

HOW TO IDENTIFY THE QUESTION

The paragraph preceding the passage probably …

What is the most likely in the paragraph following the passage?



WHERE TO FIND THE ANSWER

The answers can generally be found in the first line of the passage for a preceding question. The answer can generally be found in the last line for a following question.

HOW TO ANSWER THE QUESTION

  1. Read the first line for a preceding question.

  2. Read the last line for a following question.

  3. Draw a conclusion about what comes before or after.

  4. Choose the answer that is reflected in the first or last line of the passage.

SKILL 8: FIND DEFINITIONS FROM STRUCTURAL CLUES

STRUCTURAL CLUES

HOW TO IDENTIFY THE QUESTION

What is the meaning of “X” in line Y?

The word “X” in line Y is closest in meaning to…

The word “X” in line Y could best to replaced by…


TYPES OF CLUES

Punctuation

comma, parentheses, dashes

Restatement

or, that is, in other words, i.e.

Examples

such as, for example, e.g.

WHERE TO FIND THE ANSWER

Information to help you determine what something means will generally be found the punctuation clue, the restatement clue, or the example clue.

HOW TO ANSWER THE QUESTION

  1. Find the word in the passage.

  2. Locate any structural clues.

  3. Read the part of the passage after the structural clue carefully.

  4. Eliminate any definitely wrong answers and choose the best answer from the remaining choices.

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